@afshimono I’m sure that are good drosophilist handbooks with techniques as well!
@leTwtrGris Don’t know about Stockholm. Around 120 in Linköping!
It was pretty nice! I’ve struggled to use the lychee in something good; it’s so sweet. @elinapalokangas
But you are allowed to cut it in half and take one piece. Ad infinitum. @akesoft
1.5 vodka, 1.5 lychee liqueur, 0.5 lime juice, 0.5 campari. Pretty interesting. http://t.co/qrKXY2J09x
Nino Mick http://t.co/1pMZzMNvGE
Niklas Mesaros http://t.co/PSGeU2oXax
Doesn’t really do that well with poetry and videos, does it? :) @Julius__Pringle
Saturday cocktail. http://t.co/OmCZ5sgPih
Out of the question. :p @ThegoodBuck
I’d love to post a few more I’d my favourites from the Swedish scene, but are you OK with a bunch of poems in Swedish?
Andrea Gibson http://t.co/Bs2arFahhh
Tswi Hlakotsa, Swedish slam champion 2014 http://t.co/JWvh0AR6U2
Let’s listen to some more poetry, shall we.
To make the DNA construct, there will probably be bacteria involved too. @afshimono
Microinjection is probably very tricky. But I haven’t tried. @afshimono
In principle, I believe what you’d do is to make a construct that contains a luciferase gene and inject it into fly embryos. @afshimono
@KaaanTaka That’s a hard question; what do you want to know?
Obviously it would be pretty irresponsible of me to recommend that you try to make transgenics in your home … :) @afshimono
That does not sound like a mutation that will happen spontaneously. @afshimono
@SwedeMuses Thanks! I realized my google failure was due to spelling. :)
@SwedeMuses Sounds interesting. Any link/details about the magpies? :)
And they seem to be in part feral domestics, mixed with wild! @MrEuroGuy
@HeleneBonne You are too kind! :)
@MarcusPetty9 Former state church.
Long version: http://t.co/TZbfvWm68e
Short version: the chickens sound, look and have mitochondrial DNA that suggest that they are a mixture of wild and domestic.
We sequenced the DNA with one of these modern sequencers that give fragments from the whole genome.
So Dom, my supervisor, and collaborators Eben and Pamela, went there to observe and collect DNA.
Another is that they are feralised domestic chickens, possibly released by hurricanes.
One possibility is that the chickens stem stem from chickens brought over by the Polynesians
The evening walk. http://t.co/ncPQf50aiN
So there are chickens all over the island. Google it to see the pictures! There are two hypotheses or stories about where they came from.
Spring flower selfie. http://t.co/CrWlY7xFWi
@RaiPhantom No worries. :) I guess this is the point where I’m contractually obliged to cite a Swedish saying about the weather.
Also with double entendre headline … http://t.co/k1wOiC1OXq
Did I tell you the story of the chickens on Kauai? I don’t think I did.
@RaiPhantom Not raining yet, but those clouds look suspicious to me.
Such melodramatic weather. http://t.co/2aaqKLMRu2
So, I guess I don’t really have much good information except that I’m sure it’s very possible! Sounds like a fun project! @afshimono
I think the possibly expensive part would come from what you want to do with the flies. @afshimono
Except with transgenic lines; that would be subject to various regulations, I’m sure. @afshimono
I don’t know if the stock centres would send stuff to a private address, but I don’t see why not. @afshimono
The fly community has a really strong tradition of classical genetics with stocks and crosses. @afshimono
To breed flies, one pretty much only needs some tubes and fly food! Don’t know the price, but not much. @afshimono
There are definitely genetic effects and a domestication effect on tonic immobility duration. @JanJoostBouwman
You can certainly ask me about political science, but I probably cannot answer. That tweet is from before my week. :) @Diri202
Oh, doing what kind of work? :) @MBDfromNC
@Roger_Larsson One can win any contest by making the rules.
I wish I could, but I don’t know. Maybe one of the followers has an idea? @adawoody
Speaking of fruit flies. Chickens are really cool, but I think I’d like working with insects too.
@ternlund Eh, kanske inte behövt tagga dig, för det var inte menat att säga emot dig eller så.
Regardless of what type of ethics one believes, I think it’s important to know about capabilities of other animals. @ternlund
I feel like it’s a Scylla/Charybdis thing; there’s also the tendency to disregard animal minds. @SardonicaX
@Hedgehog91_ I think that makes sense.
Sleep doesn’t seem to be a universal, though. @C0CK5TAR
@sanderwagner Thanks! I’m unlikely to be bored this weekend, tough. :)
@FelixPecarski Me neither!
@jamiemcc79 Now I want some too!
Yes, you are more clever than a chicken. Come back when you echolocate better than a bat.
@sanderwagner I have for a lot of things as well; I don’t necessarily think that’s such a problem. :)
Yes, dogs are experts at communicating with humans! @5plits
As for Herzog, it’s true that a lot of other animals are not as clever as humans. But that is no excuse for an attitude of contempt.
But I think it’s within the realm of science to the same extent as knowing what other humans are feeling and thinking.
It’s tricky to know what an animal of a different species is feeling or thinking.
A lot of behavioral biology is based on test situations with more or less tenuous interpretation.
A lot of behavioural biology I’d based on test situations with more or less tenuous interpretation.
It’s used as one of several tests of fearfulness in the chicken. One puts the chicken on its back and measures the time it stays immobile.
The ”hypnosis” Herzog talks about is called tonic immobility, by the way. @sanderwagner
”enormity of their stupidity” Eh,rampant mammal bias! @sanderwagner
@Mikytricolor If I was into the microbes of the built environment! :)
@pipsuxx And within languages. :)
Come on, if you think you’re being compared to a chicken, you should be happy. Chickens are great!
For reasons that elude me, some folks think it’s a very clever joke to point out that it sounds like female chicken in English.
It’s a gender neutral (and sex neutral) pronoun, I’d guess most understand it by now and it’s in the vocabulary by the Swedish academy.
But speaking of strange things people say that involve chickens. I’m sure all @sweden followers have heard about ”hen” the pronoun.
The other being grant applications.
The figures are of course for a manuscript, as manuscripts are one of the practicing scientist’s true obsessions.
This weekend I need to read a chapter of population genetics, make a couple of figures, and clean my home a little. The rest is all twitter.
@jpsateles You can quote me on that! :)
@fremdis Even if it is, the egg still came first. :)
Of course, the joke is sort of ruined by the fact that the egg came first.
@5plits Well, I am looking at some egg production traits … :)
I’m just looking for an opportunity for a chicken or egg press release and my life would be complete.
But who am I to talk? My first press release had a size does matter joke in it.
But who am I to talk? My first press release had a size does matter how in it.
You can probably tell that I’m not that thrilled about the title of that news item, but quantitative genetics is fun.
By the way, this paper came out recently: http://t.co/lmAXfZxyu8
@Winterbay_ Oh, anything about exposure causing transgenerational effects?
@annsy5 No. Tell me! :)
But maybe for developmental reasons there can’t be a horn in that position. Maybe I’d know if I’d read the freaky horn transplant paper.
(Again, I don’t know how my keyboard turned ”don’t” into ”doubt”. I’ll just have to embrace the awful English.)
I doubt know any particular reasons unicorns couldn’t exist. It’s probably an evolutionary accident that they don’t. #unicornfriday
Rooster on a bus. http://t.co/NwTNfl1H4Y
I should look the development of the respective horns up, but I’m going to say narwhal! @MarcusPetty9
@RunningBecky Wow I wish I’d been there!
When I get home I’ll show you a unicorn my friend made. #unicornfriday
I love that it’s become a thing to draw unicorns a bit ugly and not so grateful. #unicornfriday
For now, my mind is stuck on unicorns. Unicorns stand for everything colorful and depraved. #unicornfriday
Oh, I don’t think I’ve written anything genetics related today. Strange.
Email subject line of the day: ”Fina bakterier” (nice bacteria)
That sounds fun and absurd! What are they saying? :) @CashGameND
I actually read a research paper once by some guy who was transplanting horns between different embryos. Freakiest thing ever! @Evil_Fever
Of course, but mostly the train between Linköping and Norrköping! @bussborg
Yes, every Friday! @laurenkate8
Oh Android keyboard, you are the worst! But ”pink rock” instead of punk rock was the best typo yet. And fitting, as today is #unicornfriday.
Now it’s back to Linköping, science hat on, and a meeting about a manuscript in the afternoon.
We tried to connect Walt Whitman, the industrial small town, the strong pink rock and metal in Finspång, and the bookend.
@panspermie153 Nej. Coolt med lamor! :)
Apparently in the spirit of M. A. Numminen, who did something similar for a Finnish municipality.
So, the thing we did was a poetic introduction to the yearly bookend of the municipality of Finspång.
@bussborg Ja, jag bor där!
Soon now. http://t.co/yBUsg9RSKi
@rishi4u Right side since 1967!
@JustJimWillDo Not really, but I don’t think the people involved are reading twitter.
@sethsimonds What now?
We formed 2005 at the Swedish poetry slam nationals, we’ve been going for ten years.
Again, this happened to be an interesting week when I’m not just at my desk all day.
I actually have vacation today; I’m in Finspång to perform with Dödsstjärnan.
I actually have vacation today; I’m in Finspång to perform with that secret new project I mentioned yesterday.
Tomorrow I’ll tell you about some adventures in spoken word poetry.
I arrived at mum’s house around eleven. Both were tired, but for some reason we talked for two hours about the molecular basis of disease.
Yes, I mentioned buffering, and HSPs are probably the most will known example of that. :) @Serge_at_FARNET
Throwback Thursday: Sa’ra Charismata, a previous curator, sent this song: http://t.co/XXurtjOMf9
It is reasonably easy to simulate. But I’ll have a look and see if there’s a nice example traced with genetic markers. @anyanyanyanyan5
@A8Abelaziz Oh, I don’t know so much, especially not about medical degrees. I’ll look and see if I can get back to you with a link.
Whether they have major effects in evolution is an open question, I’d say. @melbacoast
Some stress effects may be transmitted from parent to offspring as nongenetic parental effects. @melbacoast
Some of them may have effects on traits much later in the development of the individual. @melbacoast
If we mean epigenetic gene regulatory changes within individuals: yes, probably tons of those in response to stress! @melbacoast
Yes, maybe! Epigenetics is a bit tricky since it means so several different things to different people. @melbacoast
Imagine starting a new population from a random sampling. The composition might change a lot, especially with a small sample!@DMRI05
There may also be major changes just because some individuals, carrying some variants, just happen to survive. @DMRI05
As you say: There can be adaptation if some variants make the carriers deal better with these catastrophic events. @DMRI05
Evolution means that the gene pool changes over the generations. Some of the evolution is adaptive, some isn’t. @DMRI05
In evolution, it helps to think about the pool of genetic variants within a species. Genomes vary a lot between individuals. @DMRI05
I misunderstood your question! The answer should be a resounding yes, with a few qualifications! :) @DMRI05
Lots of waving hands are involved.
Dödsstjärnan (”The Death Star”), the poetry group of which I’m a third, working on a secret new project. http://t.co/afa0hoUnUq
And increased mutation can evolve as a competitive advantage. But directed changes to the genome to cope, not really. @DMRI05
Depends on what kind of duress. There are definitely environmental conditions that increase mutation rate, like chemical mutagens. @DMRI05
That gives us a measure of how much there was off each gene.
We then shine a laser on the slide, and the labeled sample that sticks to the probe shines back.
The DNA in question was made from the RNA, expressed genes, from tissue samples.
The pink stuff is DNA labeled with a fluorescent molecule. We stick it on a glass slide that contains DNA probes matching known genes.
And our method of choice for measuring many genes at once is microarrays. The process involves lots of pink tubes. http://t.co/wWsmOKbSMX
We measure gene expression and map the regions of the genome that are associated with expression of each gene.
Others are caused by variants that change how much a gene is expressed. That’s the kind that eQTL mapping can find.
Some heritable differences between individuals are caused by changes in gene products, like changes to protein function.
Gene expression is the first step to a gene being used by the organism.
eQTL mapping means applying genetic mapping to the expression of genes.
@sans_bleu Hej! :D
Those are words:
To live by.
But here is a selfie in front of the microarray scanner. We’ve spent many nervous mornings together doing eQTL work. http://t.co/FdAstcH1Y9
If you hadn’t caught me during a teaching week, all of my pictures would’ve been of my desk. I’m in a writing period now.
@CapnCole There should be an iGEM team working on juniper E. coli …
@DMRI05 Sorry, was referring to previous tweet with pictures.
Yes, and also a the lab bacterium par excellence! @HailTheKicker
I’d try to keep E. coli or of my cocktails, though. :) @CapnCole
It feels a bit like science fiction to me too, but it’s very standard molecular biology used for all kinds of things! @KevinDante
Pictured: tubes on ice, heating block, nutrient medium for bacteria to live in, flask swirling in incubator.
We put plasmid, i.e. circular DNA with the genes we want (here: not much, since it’s for demonstrating the principle) into Escherichia coli.
So this if what molecular cloning looks like
Guess the process! http://t.co/D4gcogBe0p
Lab hand selfie. http://t.co/iXX38Wu3hk
At lunch: ”Is it time to go feed the bacteria yet?”
Two beautiful pictures from campus: spring weather and the Wright lab bench. http://t.co/Amx06dHZh0
@5plits Register and pay the fee, I guess. :) I don’t think one actually has to be a researcher in the field to attend.
This year I’m going to the ESEB (evolutionary biology) in Lausanne and IBANGS (brain and neural genetics) in Uppsala.
Scientific conferences (I go to about two a year, one Swedish and one international) are some of the highlights of being a PhD student.
”We were somewhere around Barstow on the edge of the desert when the debates about an extended synthesis began to take hold.”
I’d like to start a conference called Fear and Loathing in Evolutionary Biology.
For some reason I get a lot of spam about a conference on Controversies in Bovine Health.
@pnilz Combs, man. :)
”I love men” http://t.co/uABdvJKzm8
”Logograph of animals in space” http://t.co/T5XTN1ROV4
But now, before I go to bed, some poetry!
I think I’m going to have to make Saturday paper day, where I find and link all papers I’ve promised people or hinted about. :)
And broodiness is also a fascinating trait! Pretty much selected away in modern breed improvement. @itchyscratchyF
Today was chicken comb day! Unfortunately, I haven’t written a comb blog post. But I have this from my halftime: https://t.co/MudFMVcih6
And the latest Swedish poultry has arrived. Even ivory tower scientists read it! http://t.co/vP527iPBE5
@JanJoostBouwman And I agree, variation doesn’t mean adaptation. (I too answered no in the next tweet. :) )
I must stress that I take ”adaptation” to mean pretty much what you said: advantageous but with no intent involved. :) @JanJoostBouwman
@5plits I don’t know about that. But if that had been done to my family I’d never consent to giving DNA to research.
And there seems to be pleiotropy (oh the jargon: genetic side-effects) on egg production and bone, which is possibly more useful. @Wisher_T
No, there is little application for comb mass outside basic research. But we do other stuff with these birds too. @Wisher_T
RT @DanTilert: .@sweden I’m of the firm opinion that all touchscreen keyboards are worthless. Some are less worthless than others, but all …
@5plits Yes, there is definitely more to domestication than selective breeding. Relaxation of natural and sexual selection, chance …!
Admittedly, there is a lot of casual inference in science too.
Causal inference. Causal! Sometimes I just hate the android keyboard.
Sat down to tweet and the students at the next table were loudly debating casual inference. Sometimes I just love the university. #liu
The basis of a domestication trait is also cool, but with comb, I hope we can take these genes to the field eventually! @Wisher_T
Yes! Sexual selection is mostly abolished, at least in modern breeding. In this cross, we can only study the variants. @Wisher_T
Teaching time again! Wish me luck. :)
Yes, though I wouldn’t even use ”genetic” about a trait, only about variation or contributions. :) @BXGD
People use this to search for parts of the genome that have been recently selected, looking for regions of reduced variation.
And in the short term, heritability may even increase with selection.
There are also cases like frequency dependent selection that can maintain variation, if say rare variants have an advantage.
No, it’s more like the opposite. Selection tends to reduce genetic variation.
Say that the propensity for some kind of behaviour is heritable in humans. Does that mean that the behaviour is adaptive?
It seems pretty common to believe that the fact that some trait has a heritable component means that it’s an adaptation.
Another thing I could’ve brought up among common misconceptions and confusions is the connection between genetics and selection.
But comb size also respond to things like social hierarchy and general health. @Feuerz3ug
That there is genetic variation in comb size is pretty clear from selection experiments, mapping and the wild/domestic comparison@Feuerz3ug
But I’ll have to check the literature to see if anyone actually used fake combs. That would be great (and fun). @Feuerz3ug
I know people have messed with plumage to look at the effects of comb and other potential ornaments together. @Feuerz3ug
So why do Red Junglefowl have smaller combs than domestic on average? Probably because of other costs to having a big comb. @WuCurdy
Yes! Heritable preference for an ornament should lead to trait exaggeration. @WuCurdy
@kribbemannen Maybe not in the same way as a chicken, but I do find combs pretty.
It seems both hens and roosters think that a big comb is an attractive thing in a potential mate.
The comb is one of those sexual ornaments, i.e. attractive things that animals use to choose mates.
And that brings us to the obvious question: who cares about chicken comb size? Chickens do!
I like to think genomics is genetics with contemporary tools. :) @boredwokempire
But we don’t know how it works on a molecular or physiological level (yet …) @cmbsweden
We find some evidence that the same regions of the genome are involved in both comb and other domestication traits. @cmbsweden
I suspect that this is a side-effect of selection for other traits such as egg production and early sexual maturity.@cmbsweden
Also, we find associated regions of the genome, but the resolution isn’t that great. There can be hundreds of genes in these regions.
All practical mapping studies will miss variants of small effect. When this occurs in human genetics it’s called ”missing heritability”.
First, we already suspected that comb mass, like most interesting heritable traits, I’d affected by lots of genetic variants.
Now, a few technicalities about this method, called quantitative trait locus mapping (because it maps quantitative traits to loci, duh).
And we did, and delineated eight regions of the chicken genome where such variants are likely located.
That means that we can look at comb mass in a wild by domestic intercross to map genetic variants for comb mass.
For some reason, comb mass has been affected by domestication. Domestic chickens have larger combs, even relative to their bigger bodies.
But I have worked on the genetics of comb mass in the chicken. (See http://t.co/Mc7UcCP3gs ).
Back to genetics! Yesterday, @JanJoostBouwman brought up the chicken comb. I doubt know if that was because you’ve read my profile or not.
@Fallen_Woman Yes, I believe switching languages can help with thinking differently.
@frozenhispanic That is, a measure of how often genetic variants tend to co-occur in a population.
@frozenhispanic ”linkage disequilibrium statistics”
And good morning! :)
(Obviously, this doesn’t apply to Swedes who are native English speakers, nor to other exceptionally fluent individuals.)
And, for the same reason, that I should probably try to do more of my thinking in Swedish.
So I suspect that when Swedish writers think their English poetry sounds better,it’s often because they don’t see the tired cliches in.
@RevPLane Haha, would you believe me if I said yes?
Yes, artificial selection for different combs definitely happens. @JanJoostBouwman
I’m convinced this is because I’m tone deaf to nuances of English, but I don’t know.
There is a similar thing going on with poetry. How often have you heard a Swede claim that they write better in English?
The problem is that expressions and phrases that sound good and clever to me in English often sound stupid in Swedish.
@SweMedic Just! Se ”prediktion”. :)
And I’m looking for an excuse to write ”kopplingsojämviktsstatistika”.
Good question! Professor Per Jensen on the department uses it and said it was possibly short for ”pekoral”. I don’t know. @Paddock_S
@kribbemannen Controversial, I? :p
Even though ”polymeraskedjereaktionen” looks pretty funny.
The hard thing about writing about science in Swedish is not the technical terms, because they’re mostly the same.
But I’ll note something about speaking English, as someone who goes around sounding like a robot all day at work.
And I’m sure you already know the Swedish word for drinking coffee, and that we sound like robots when we speak English.
As I wrote on http://t.co/ahvxQ83Y9C, I probably won’t provide much by way of insights into Swedishness.
But one could compare domestic breeds! @JanJoostBouwman
I don’t think it can explain the increase in domestication, since Red Junglefowl have small combs on average. @JanJoostBouwman
Ah! Comb size as a climate adaptation isn’t something we’ve considered much. @JanJoostBouwman
And of course, the gel picture didn’t look very good at all. Failing in public is fun. :p
@pipsuxx Hmm, I think something simple like a Southside or a upside down Martini.
I think the relationships is roughly log-linear.
Long DNA molecules travel slower through the gel. Therefore, the size of the fragment is reflected by how far the DNA gets in a given time.
And then we wait. The gel contains a fluorescent molecule that binds DNA so that we can see the DNA under a ultraviolet light.
We put the electric field on, and DNA, negatively charged, travels through the gel towards the positive pole. http://t.co/fE3w5A7Vle
The third picture shows the little wells we make (with a gel comb) filled with DNA (and blue dye for visibility).
No, and I haven’t eaten chicken in years. @RambergViktor
You boil the agarose mixed with buffer (water solution with nice pH and dissolved ions) and let is set to a gel. http://t.co/QXQcCOoipb
@i_am_Scott 2% agarose in TBE.
@MarkusSugarhill My work is with chickens (and a tiny little bit with dogs).
I do actually use agar at home too, not so much for solid gels bit in sauces. And for clarification … But again, I digress. @CookingIssues
SybrSafe, yes! @Tenntor
But enough for one gel! @MarkusSugarhill
We have copied up some DNA sequences (last lab, with PCR) and now we want to compare their lengths. Gel electrophoresis is good for sizing.
@Phatchenny yes! :)
And fun. I agree. @MarcusPetty9
Agarose, a purified version of agar, aka agar-agar, aka vegan gelatin, being weighed out. http://t.co/5Q4vKb2X5y
By the way, the gel is running. Time to review. Today’s topic: agarose gel electrophoresis.
I like to say that most of lab work is waiting for thermodynamics … @Vilsjin
@Aiimes Thanks! :)
By the way, working in a lab has given me a lot more passion for cooking. And for cocktails, but that’s maybe a topic for another day.
And, at the same time, that techniques and ideas may fail at any given moment for all kinds of reasons.
To show that all this technical stuff comes down to doing things that are (for molecular biology) a bit like working in the kitchen.
I believe the point of teaching lab is, in some sense, to show how science is both easy and hard.
Practical is maybe overstating it a little. It’s not a test, but it is part of the assessment in the course. :)
And when I have done done things with chicken behaviour in connection with domestication. @kaxkatten
Sounds fun! Where did you work? There are a bunch of ethologists working on chickens and dogs in the department. :) @kaxkatten
@MJCaan Hello! Yes, I’m having a great time so far!
Teaching time! Lab practical in molecular genetics. I’ll try taking some pictures, and then we can have our own little MOOC later.
@westernjackdaw There is an ancient seed group in the department who look at archaeological genetics of domestic crops!
@westernjackdaw My work is mostly on the genetics, but domestication is a great place for archaeology, anthropology and biology to meet!
Finally, Arthur being a good dog and bringing me coffee. http://t.co/wuJUW83vrV
Our calendar. Soothing landscapes and always out of sync. http://t.co/9JkyETsTHW
The programming language bookshelf. http://t.co/x0cKpPAner
More chicken decorations. It’s always Easter in our office. http://t.co/8G3kB6xvhr
Intercross chicks and Easter egg. http://t.co/sHppDl3ZSR
Let’s end this lunch of tweeting with a tour of the office! Here: Darwin quote, my publications and pUC19. http://t.co/nPRDTtZNUr
But again, these things are far from mechanistic models. @partielldiff
There are some nice cases where that has lead to pathways and mechanisms. @partielldiff
One thing lots of people do is to use some kind of network or clustering method on gene expression data.@partielldiff
We try, we try. :) @thedaviswood
@Hedgehog91_ Applies to clonally reproducing animals too, of course. :)
For animals, reasonably easy. But take clonally reproducing species, what does reproductive isolation mean then? @Hedgehog91_
But I’ll get back to you with some nice example of the evolution of reproductive isolation! @Hedgehog91_
Speciation is a tricky concept, since species are hard to define. @Hedgehog91_
Namely, evolution doesn’t mean that humans descend from extant chimps, but that we share ancestors with them. @Hedgehog91_
In terms of primate evolution, make sure to stress what evolution doesn’t claim, but creationist often say it does @Hedgehog91_
Adaptation from mutation and selection is observable live, e.g. in drug resistance in viruses and bacteria. @Hedgehog91_
Also, the rewards can feel so distant, and one easily feels stupid and inadequate. @cmonmila
I suspect we all struggle with motivation sometimes. @cmonmila
@Hedgehog91_ What part of evolution is your friend objecting too: adaptation, formation of new species or something else?
@Rana_R_june Half past nine in the morning.
Even if the trait in question is highly heritable. @EKantis
Plasticity, in this case, means that individuals with a certain genetic makeup may still show a range of trait values.@EKantis
Good point, @EKantis, and yes, variable expression is one way to think about it.
And in the other end, intense separate selection on layer and meat breeds started with the last 100 years. @danbjson
And different stages: a common hypothesis (that I doubt) is that chickens were first domesticated for sport or ceremony. @danbjson
Yes, an evolutionary process with components like adaptation to humans, artificial selection, relaxed predation, some chance etc. @danbjson
@Hedgehog91_ My impression is that creationists often don’t believe evolution clashes with other beliefs. It’s not just about the evidence.
@Hedgehog91_ Oh, that is a tricky one. Not the evidence, but convincing someone who is a creationist.
@SheepOfJesus Hehe, well, the domestic side of the cross is a layer breed. KFC won’t serve that …
@hulehemma Chickens can be pretty ferocious :)
Often all that is known about the gene is based on sequence alignment. @partielldiff
And usually, I wouldn’t even know what reactions to model! @partielldiff
But I believe tameness, i.e. reduced fear towards humans, is part of cat domestication too. @Winterbay_
The relation between cats and humans, cattle and humans, and chickens and humans are pretty different. @Winterbay_
I don’t know much about cat domestication. But different domestic animals must have faced different selection pressures. @Winterbay_
@lhbergstrom I’d like to work on an odd hybrid. :)
@adamlagerqvist Haha, we should live tweet the lab. :)
Indeed, the comb is the queen of sexual ornaments. :) @rhyminanstealin
We’re also interested in feralisation, which is like reverse domestication in some sense. Our latest paper was on the Kauai feral chickens.
I’ve been looking into bone traits, comb mass (an ornamental trait in chickens), fearful behaviour and gene expression.
@d_a_petersson I knew it XD
If you look closely at my avatar you see s few of the intercross chicks. (Photo by my supervisor Dom Wright.)
Therefore, we (the people in the lab where I work and quite a few in the neighboring labs as well) work on wild x domestic chicken crosses.
@afshimono If a tool I needed required writing python, I’d use it for sure.
@afshimono I doubt that’s the case, but sure, I occasionally write python and have nothing against it. :)
And wild animals are still there, and can interbreed with the domestics. That sets the stage for genetic mapping of domestication traits.
Domestication is one evolutionary process that causes lots of interesting differences in animals (and plants).
So what is it that I do? I’m interested in how genetic variants affect traits.
I haven’t actually tried any of the notebook style tools. I should! :) @Aldebjer
@Lundatic Ah! Looks interesting with the local variation in developmental time! Didn’t know about that one.
@d_a_petersson Geneway? Am I missing a great pun? :o
@paul_schulz12 Sorry, not a fan.
Unfortunately, I know very little. But I believe the Avian Pylogenomics Project sequenced a penguin genome. @ViolinNDance
Both people who love and hate the idea of genetic influences on traits seem to make that mistake. @Aldebjer
Another is the, still infuriatingly common, idea that heritable traits are always or by default ”hard-wired” and nonplastic. @Aldebjer
Keeping that in mind helps with many issues and heated arguments. @Aldebjer
”Gene” means both molecular gene, i.e. sequence with a function, and genetic variant that causes differences between individuals. @Aldebjer
A major confusion is that the word ”gene” has at least two meanings. Like two perspectives on genetics. @Aldebjer
But, also, I don’t think it’s just misconceptions among the public, but sometimes conflicting views and concepts among experts. @Aldebjer
There are a couple that I feel are very common and confusing. @Aldebjer
That said, even today, we probably should think more about how to design good experiments to follow up model predictions. @partielldiff
But in a distant bright future, I hope, quantitative genetics and systems biology will converge. :) @partielldiff
I mostly use statistical models to connect traits to genes and genetic markers. @partielldiff
Oh, I’d love to know enough about my systems to do mechanistic modelling! We’re just nowhere nere there. @partielldiff
But I find it kind of cool that ordinary traits like hair colour, height etc illustrate the complexities of inheritance @SamuelAgboola
Mind you, I don’t know that much about the genetics of human colour (but a colleague works on chicken feather colour. :) ) @SamuelAgboola
@DanieleTatti If you mean my excessive hairyness I doubt that is an adaptation to the Nordic climate. :)
@TobiasHop Last shave was maybe eleven years ago.
It’s kind of both: submitting to journal and will use it in thesis. @octavekitten
I don’t see myself as a bioinformatician, but I guess part of what I do is bioinformatics. @afshimono
Since I use sequencing, microarrays and reasonably large pedigrees, I use computers and programming a lot. @afshimono
Genetics always meant statistics and data analysis, but even more so with modern tools. @afshimono
@Aiimes Hi! :)
@gloggyapparatus Inte alls dåligt! :) Det här kontot ska vara på engelska. Men mitt vanliga är både och!
@solidsociaty I just got it as a present. Too cute. :)
@skumdum What do you mean?
I like it a lot. :) Five years, so this is my last. @suikerpinda
This is my last year, and I believe that is pretty typical. Five years, 20% of which is teaching. @MusicAndBrains
Right now I’m making some tables and figures for a manuscript I’m working on. Hopefully, submission time is Pretty Soon(TM).
Wow, lots of questions coming in! I’ll answer more of them in the evening. :)
Yes. Not programming as in software development, but my data analysis requires programming. @AxelRantila
For anyone who wonders what my work looks like today, I took a picture. http://t.co/dfmw07iPXZ
For what it’s worth, I like it a lot and would choose it again. @StockholmTales
I’m interested in how genes affect traits. For example, how does local adaptation work? @Rana_R_june
Oh, good question, @Rana_R_june. I really like how many open questions there are.
@lhbergstrom Odd bird hybrids do occur, of though, and I don’t know for sure. :)
The black swan is a different species from another part of the world; probably not. @lhbergstrom
I’ll be back at lunch. For now, coffee selfie! http://t.co/CeMkbM8Bpj
Well, I have a life. I didn’t say I worked all the time or had no friends, right? :) @GodiePeCo
But I promise to talk about some other stuff I like, including probably poetry. @GodiePeCo
Good point, @GodiePeCo, bit I’m in my last year of my PhD, and that statement is pretty much true for me right now.
That means I pretty much only have one interest right now, which is science. Consequently, that’s what I’ll tweet about, more or less.
I’m a PhD student in genetics at @liu_university, currently on my fifth year.
@TobiasHop No, sorry, I’m way too white, atheist and sinful to be Jesus.
Marvellous! Amina will be a tough act to follow, but I’ll do my best.
Is this thing on?