Martin Johnsson

Martin Johnsson

was @sweden 2015-04-13 to 2015-04-20


I’m a PhD student in genetics at Linköping University. I’m interested in how genetic variation causes differences in shape, behaviour and sexual ornamentation of animals. Therefore, I do genetic research on chicken domestication. I use molecular methods and computers to learn more about the genetic basis of domestication traits. This may or may not sound technical, very lofty or slightly wrongheaded. If so, let’s talk about it this week!

Usually, I tweet about my life in science, and that’s what I’ll be doing this week as well. I’m likely to write about genetics in general, chicken genetics in particular, evolution, data analysis, the joys and woes of research and teaching, my pet peeves and hypotheses, my plans and worries about continuing to work in science … And a little something about poetry and cocktails might sneak its way into the feed as well.

I’m unlikely to present any great insights about the nature and meaning of Swedishness, but I hope I may be able to give you a new appreciation for the chicken comb.

My twitter most weeks: @mrtnj.

Martin Johnsson's Feed

@sweden April 19, 2015, 10:56 p.m.

Good night everybody! @mrtnj signing out.

@sweden April 19, 2015, 10:56 p.m.

"Do not walk on the grass with your bare feet; my garden is filled with star splinters." Edith Södergran, translated by Frederic Fleisher

@sweden April 19, 2015, 10:25 p.m.

Thanks! It's @mrtnj and it's a mix of English and Swedish! @RevPLane

@sweden April 19, 2015, 10:10 p.m.

So if anyone talks about something being "genetic", figure out what sense of the word they're using.

@sweden April 19, 2015, 10:05 p.m.

"Gene" has dual meanings: DNA sequence with a function and a name or unit of inheritance that causes difference between individuals.

@sweden April 19, 2015, 10:02 p.m.

So, to recap: Genetics is fun and chickens are magnificent creatures. #Rstats is a sweet language for data analysis. The egg came first.

@sweden April 19, 2015, 9:46 p.m.

RT @Pabsyalgomas: I imagine this week @sweden's PhD thesis being something like this: (btw, awesome genetic topics t…

@sweden April 19, 2015, 9:33 p.m.

"Rad facts about space". I'm looking forward to that!

@sweden April 19, 2015, 9:31 p.m.

RT @rymdprins: hey everyone guess what? this coming week i'll be tweeting as @sweden !! stay tuned on that account for dank memes and rad f…

@sweden April 19, 2015, 9:28 p.m.

I'm not leaving just yet, but I'm allowed to announce next week's curator, do I will.

@sweden April 19, 2015, 9:20 p.m.

Is it time? I think it is time!

@sweden April 19, 2015, 7:08 p.m.

@Aiimes Yes, my phone really liked that one apparently.

@sweden April 19, 2015, 6:44 p.m.

I was going to write "the last campus pictures" and I was going to post them only once, but hey twitter app, do as you please.

@sweden April 19, 2015, 3:31 p.m.

That doesn't mean that bodies and behaviours necessarily form just two types.

@sweden April 19, 2015, 3:28 p.m.

And the gamete sizes that organisms produce turn out to be either small (male) or large (female).

@sweden April 19, 2015, 3:26 p.m.

You may have noticed that I was referring to "sex" as a binary thing. When I say sex, I just mean gamete sizes.

@sweden April 19, 2015, 2:59 p.m.

@thedaviswood Answer done questions and meta-tweet annoy the week, by the looks of it. :)

@sweden April 19, 2015, 2:56 p.m.

@basse_andersson What is talent: predispositions for success that are out of your control? If so both genetics, social environment, luck. :)

@sweden April 19, 2015, 2:49 p.m.

RT @LunaCentifanti: @sweden @basse_andersson Also a good e.g. of gene-environment relation: if tall, find sports easier to practice so do i…

@sweden April 19, 2015, 2:42 p.m.

Decide is too strong a word, but there are traits that can contribute to success in sports and are heritable, like height. @basse_andersson

@sweden April 19, 2015, 2:07 p.m.

Mammalian sex determining region is on Y, with some exceptions, yes. Genes downstream can be anywhere. :) @kfriesen44 @basse_andersson

@sweden April 19, 2015, 1:53 p.m.

RT @kfriesen44: @sweden @basse_andersson sexual dimorphism is only due to the y chromosome, no? Whether it be structural or regulatory gen…

@sweden April 19, 2015, 1:52 p.m.

That is, in humans only Y is sex specific and the rest is shared. @basse_andersson

@sweden April 19, 2015, 1:52 p.m.

In species that have genetic sex determination systems, the sex chromosome (or variant) is the difference. @basse_andersson

@sweden April 19, 2015, 1:50 p.m.

RT @basse_andersson: @sweden But is there any difference in numbers? Have men more of some gene and women more of another? In general.

@sweden April 19, 2015, 1:16 p.m.

RT @seagreenseablue: @sweden Anyone you would recommend?

@sweden April 19, 2015, 1:14 p.m.

So to say that males and females express genes differently is just like saying they have different muscle mass on average. @basse_andersson

@sweden April 19, 2015, 1:13 p.m.

The gene can be anywhere in the network of causes, just like hormone, neurotransmitters etc. @basse_andersson

@sweden April 19, 2015, 1:11 p.m.

In terms of molecular genetics, genes are no different than other parts of the body. @basse_andersson

@sweden April 19, 2015, 1:10 p.m.

It's a bit tricky, because "genetic" may mean different things. @basse_andersson

@sweden April 19, 2015, 1:09 p.m.

RT @basse_andersson: @sweden Im interested. Tell me. Are there difference between the sexes genetically?

@sweden April 19, 2015, 1:01 p.m.

I also expected a lot of talk about the genetics of sex difference.

@sweden April 19, 2015, 12:58 p.m.

RT @daughterofnerys: @sweden Thank you. It's perfectly simple, no idea why people still pose it as a question without an answer. @DMRI05

@sweden April 19, 2015, 12:49 p.m.

RT @andha: @sweden /martin with pals this friday doing a poetic intro to the annual report of the municipality of Finspång.…

@sweden April 19, 2015, 12:45 p.m.

The egg! Egg is an ancestral character, so first chicken developed from an egg. @DMRI05

@sweden April 19, 2015, 12:44 p.m.

RT @DMRI05: @sweden You didn't clarify the chicken and egg theory. Which came in first?

@sweden April 19, 2015, 12:44 p.m.

RT @johncarneyau: @sweden following @realscientists is a good start - different scientist each week.

@sweden April 19, 2015, 12:43 p.m.

RT @tntd: The extreme right nutjobs @sweden may have been turned off by Epigenetics. Imagining conversation between u & nutjob at dinner pa

@sweden April 19, 2015, 12:43 p.m.

Agreed, and I'm not missing them. Just a bit surprised. @grr_arrgh

@sweden April 19, 2015, 12:37 p.m.

RT @grr_arrgh: @sweden forget that, they don't deserve a platform for their vitriol

@sweden April 19, 2015, 12:36 p.m.

I failed to talk about that. :/ @Bryts

@sweden April 19, 2015, 12:35 p.m.

RT @Bryts: @sweden Have I missed all your tweets on building dinosaurs out of chickens?

@sweden April 19, 2015, 12:21 p.m.

I had expected more extreme right nutjobs wanting me to retweet their racist tweets. There have only been a few.

@sweden April 19, 2015, 12:19 p.m.

And the people who feel the need to actually tell me it's been boring instead of pressing the unfollow button or just waiting ...

@sweden April 19, 2015, 12:13 p.m.

RT @afshimono: @sweden just followed @mrtnj . Expect to see an eventual courtesy tweet in English though. ;)

@sweden April 19, 2015, 11:51 a.m.

And if you thought this week was boring as hell, it's almost over. :)

@sweden April 19, 2015, 11:49 a.m.

So if you thought this week was fun, you go follow some scientists. There are tons of them.

@sweden April 19, 2015, 11:43 a.m.

Some of the people whose papers I read were on twitter and shared their opinions on science.

@sweden April 19, 2015, 11:41 a.m.

I kept tweeting because I discovered science twitter.

@sweden April 19, 2015, 11:40 a.m.

There was even a hashtag for all tweets in Swedish. #svpt

@sweden April 19, 2015, 11:39 a.m.

I remember the times when Swedish twitter was all copywriters and social media consultants.

@sweden April 19, 2015, 11:20 a.m.

@I_am_Wake I think the genetics of handedness is more complex than one gene, though. :)

@sweden April 19, 2015, 11:18 a.m.

@Feuerz3ug @MarmotBiscuits @Omkarmalin Is it a shamrock or a four-leaf clover? :)

@sweden April 19, 2015, 11:03 a.m.

My first lesson in genetics was my dad telling us kids that "we are all mutants". @MarmotBiscuits @Omkarmalin

@sweden April 19, 2015, 11:02 a.m.

RT @gucceed: @sweden I think screaming at bacteria during a lab experiment "You shall not pass" will fast track you to "mad scientist" amon…

@sweden April 19, 2015, 10:57 a.m.

RT @LunaCentifanti: @BlinkySprite @sweden @gucceed you too can be an evil scientist for the ridiculously low price of 1.99 ; )…

@sweden April 19, 2015, 10:53 a.m.

Not a PhD yet, but according to my individual study plan, I should know 80% of what it takes. :) @BlinkySprite

@sweden April 19, 2015, 10:52 a.m.

RT @BlinkySprite: @sweden omg, you're a PhD in genetics! Boy, do I have a lot to ask you!

@sweden April 19, 2015, 10:48 a.m.

RT @BlinkySprite: @sweden @gucceed when I was a kid I wanted to be either a mad scientist or a housewife. No middle ground. #TrueStory

@sweden April 19, 2015, 10:44 a.m.

@odmurcia382 This goes on my spotify list! What is it about?

@sweden April 19, 2015, 10:43 a.m.

My goal is "mad scientist", and eventually Gandalf or Dumbledore.@gucceed

@sweden April 19, 2015, 10:42 a.m.

I think I dress to badly for that. @gucceed

@sweden April 19, 2015, 10:41 a.m.

RT @gucceed: @sweden Does the term "hipster" accurately describe your style? The beard kind-of hints non-conformism:)

@sweden April 19, 2015, 10:39 a.m.

Then this link will make you happy (warning: flying spiders) @Omkarmalin

@sweden April 19, 2015, 10:36 a.m.

RT @Omkarmalin: @sweden so you're saying maybe within my life span i may not be able to see a major mutation like say a flying spider ? Tha…

@sweden April 19, 2015, 10:32 a.m.

But temperature changes can affect organisms a lot. @Omkarmalin

@sweden April 19, 2015, 10:31 a.m.

It's really hard to predict evolution in the wild, if populatoions can adapt and how. @Omkarmalin

@sweden April 19, 2015, 10:30 a.m.

I haven't seen the series. Nuclear transfer ("cloning") is kind of part of proposed mitochondrial replacement treatment. @gucceed

@sweden April 19, 2015, 10:28 a.m.

RT @gucceed: @sweden Are you a fan of a sci-fi TV series Black-Ophan?How close are we to human cloning?

@sweden April 19, 2015, 10:26 a.m.

@Little_MissMaja But bear in mind that I'm not an expert on human health by any means. :)

@sweden April 19, 2015, 10:25 a.m.

RT @Little_MissMaja: @sweden where do you stand on soy and phytoestrogens❓

@sweden April 19, 2015, 10:25 a.m.

@Little_MissMaja The literature is a flurry of potential beneficial and damaging effects, no? I'm not going to worry about it.

@sweden April 19, 2015, 10:20 a.m.

RT @Omkarmalin: @sweden yes. Major noticeable changes. How & when if they happen ?

@sweden April 19, 2015, 10:20 a.m.

On the slightly crass side: also, lots of populations are soon going to have to do climate adaptation or go extinct. @Omkarmalin

@sweden April 19, 2015, 10:18 a.m.

They are in all likelihood also happening, but slowly. @Omkarmalin

@sweden April 19, 2015, 10:17 a.m.

RT @Dayreamer: @MMarmeloMartelo @sweden 39,000 feet above Alaska with an ANA flight attendant LOL..

@sweden April 19, 2015, 10:11 a.m.

When I eat vegetarian sausage, I eat them one at a time. :) @Dr_J_Skill

@sweden April 19, 2015, 10:11 a.m.

RT @Dr_J_Skill: Hello @sweden, how many sausages can you fit in your gob?

@sweden April 19, 2015, 10:10 a.m.

Justin, i.e. random changes to DNA, happen all the time, mostly unnoticed. But are you asking about major changes in traits? @Omkarmalin

@sweden April 19, 2015, 10:06 a.m.

@Fallen_Woman I like that phrase, "reality asserting itself".

@sweden April 19, 2015, 10:05 a.m.

RT @Fallen_Woman: @sweden context for the data do you find reality asserting itself, bringing the surprises into an existence that world co…

@sweden April 19, 2015, 10:05 a.m.

RT @Fallen_Woman: @sweden It's my favorite play so I wish I had remembered it before. Maybe a question: as you find new information/data an…

@sweden April 19, 2015, 10:05 a.m.

RT @Fallen_Woman: @sweden I was reminded today of this passage in Tom Stoppard's Rosencrantz & Guildenstern are Dead.…

@sweden April 19, 2015, 10:01 a.m.

Just looking at the stars in town and 60 km into the forest is a huge difference. One can see the Milky way. @erika_groth @MMarmeloMartelo

@sweden April 19, 2015, 10 a.m.

RT @erika_groth: @sweden @MMarmeloMartelo ...and if you want the full effect: as far away from the nearest town as possible (due to light p…

@sweden April 19, 2015, 9:56 a.m.

I spent so much time at the library as a kid. :) @Little_MissMaja @BrianHughes71

@sweden April 19, 2015, 9:55 a.m.

RT @RunawayBrit: @sweden @MMarmeloMartelo I've been to Porjus twice to see them. But Kiruna and Abisko are also very good.

@sweden April 19, 2015, 9:50 a.m.

I'd guess as far north as possible. @MMarmeloMartelo

@sweden April 19, 2015, 9:50 a.m.

RT @MMarmeloMartelo: @sweden in your opinion, where is the best spot to see the northern lights?

@sweden April 19, 2015, 9:48 a.m.

Scope for mutation to do what? Mutations happen in every generation. :) @Omkarmalin

@sweden April 19, 2015, 9:47 a.m.

RT @Omkarmalin: @sweden one last Question Martin. Do you see any scope for mutations in near future?

@sweden April 19, 2015, 9:45 a.m.

No. :( I think E-chocolate sounds a bit like one of those bad early 2000s digital products that turned out to be all hype. @jamiemcc79

@sweden April 19, 2015, 9:43 a.m.

RT @jamiemcc79: @sweden did you come up with a recipe/formula for e-chocolate?

@sweden April 19, 2015, 9:43 a.m.

RT @BrianHughes71: @sweden what's the very best thing about being a swede

@sweden April 19, 2015, 9:42 a.m.

But university is free; I like that. @BrianHughes71

@sweden April 19, 2015, 9:40 a.m.

Well, I don't really have anything to compare with, in terms of being anything else ... @BrianHughes71

@sweden April 19, 2015, 9:34 a.m.

Final day of @sweden:ing. Questions answered! :)

@sweden April 19, 2015, 12:17 a.m.

@afshimono I'm sure that are good drosophilist handbooks with techniques as well!

@sweden April 19, 2015, 12:02 a.m.

@leTwtrGris Don't know about Stockholm. Around 120 in Linköping!

@sweden April 18, 2015, 11:36 p.m.

@jay_been @karu1402 Don't worry; I'll mix responsibly! :)

@sweden April 18, 2015, 11:34 p.m.

It was pretty nice! I've struggled to use the lychee in something good; it's so sweet. @elinapalokangas

@sweden April 18, 2015, 11:07 p.m.

But you are allowed to cut it in half and take one piece. Ad infinitum. @akesoft

@sweden April 18, 2015, 10:46 p.m.

1.5 vodka, 1.5 lychee liqueur, 0.5 lime juice, 0.5 campari. Pretty interesting.

@sweden April 18, 2015, 9:35 p.m.

Doesn't really do that well with poetry and videos, does it? :) @Julius__Pringle

@sweden April 18, 2015, 9:20 p.m.

I'd love to post a few more I'd my favourites from the Swedish scene, but are you OK with a bunch of poems in Swedish?

@sweden April 18, 2015, 9:04 p.m.

Tswi Hlakotsa, Swedish slam champion 2014

@sweden April 18, 2015, 8:59 p.m.

Let's listen to some more poetry, shall we.

@sweden April 18, 2015, 8:45 p.m.

To make the DNA construct, there will probably be bacteria involved too. @afshimono

@sweden April 18, 2015, 8:41 p.m.

Microinjection is probably very tricky. But I haven't tried. @afshimono

@sweden April 18, 2015, 8:39 p.m.

In principle, I believe what you'd do is to make a construct that contains a luciferase gene and inject it into fly embryos. @afshimono

@sweden April 18, 2015, 8:36 p.m.

@KaaanTaka That's a hard question; what do you want to know?

@sweden April 18, 2015, 8:35 p.m.

Obviously it would be pretty irresponsible of me to recommend that you try to make transgenics in your home ... :) @afshimono

@sweden April 18, 2015, 8:33 p.m.

That does not sound like a mutation that will happen spontaneously. @afshimono

@sweden April 18, 2015, 8:33 p.m.

RT @afshimono: @sweden thanks for the info! Was hoping to create some mutant fireflies from fruit flies. :)

@sweden April 18, 2015, 8:31 p.m.

@SwedeMuses Thanks! I realized my google failure was due to spelling. :)

@sweden April 18, 2015, 8:27 p.m.

@SwedeMuses Sounds interesting. Any link/details about the magpies? :)

@sweden April 18, 2015, 8:06 p.m.

And they seem to be in part feral domestics, mixed with wild! @MrEuroGuy

@sweden April 18, 2015, 7:57 p.m.

Short version: the chickens sound, look and have mitochondrial DNA that suggest that they are a mixture of wild and domestic.

@sweden April 18, 2015, 7:55 p.m.

We sequenced the DNA with one of these modern sequencers that give fragments from the whole genome.

@sweden April 18, 2015, 7:51 p.m.

So Dom, my supervisor, and collaborators Eben and Pamela, went there to observe and collect DNA.

@sweden April 18, 2015, 7:45 p.m.

Another is that they are feralised domestic chickens, possibly released by hurricanes.

@sweden April 18, 2015, 7:44 p.m.

One possibility is that the chickens stem stem from chickens brought over by the Polynesians

@sweden April 18, 2015, 7:27 p.m.

@NJornee @RaiPhantom Exactly. What stereotypical Swedes tell frozen people, usually with a smug face.

@sweden April 18, 2015, 7:22 p.m.

RT @MBDfromNC: @DMRI05 @sweden @BrianHughes71 All adult mosquitoes require sugar to live. Only females about to lay eggs eat blood.

@sweden April 18, 2015, 7:17 p.m.

So there are chickens all over the island. Google it to see the pictures! There are two hypotheses or stories about where they came from.

@sweden April 18, 2015, 7:06 p.m.

@RaiPhantom No worries. :) I guess this is the point where I'm contractually obliged to cite a Swedish saying about the weather.

@sweden April 18, 2015, 7:04 p.m.

Also with double entendre headline ...

@sweden April 18, 2015, 7 p.m.

Did I tell you the story of the chickens on Kauai? I don't think I did.

@sweden April 18, 2015, 6:56 p.m.

@RaiPhantom Not raining yet, but those clouds look suspicious to me.

@sweden April 18, 2015, 6:53 p.m.

RT @MBDfromNC: @BrianHughes71 @sweden Much like small children, they're easily motivated by sugar, but they can be biters.

@sweden April 18, 2015, 6:53 p.m.

RT @MBDfromNC: @sweden I study how they transmit viruses to people.

@sweden April 18, 2015, 6:38 p.m.

So, I guess I don't really have much good information except that I'm sure it's very possible! Sounds like a fun project! @afshimono

@sweden April 18, 2015, 6:36 p.m.

I think the possibly expensive part would come from what you want to do with the flies. @afshimono

@sweden April 18, 2015, 6:36 p.m.

Except with transgenic lines; that would be subject to various regulations, I'm sure. @afshimono

@sweden April 18, 2015, 6:35 p.m.

I don't know if the stock centres would send stuff to a private address, but I don't see why not. @afshimono

@sweden April 18, 2015, 6:33 p.m.

The fly community has a really strong tradition of classical genetics with stocks and crosses. @afshimono

@sweden April 18, 2015, 6:33 p.m.

To breed flies, one pretty much only needs some tubes and fly food! Don't know the price, but not much. @afshimono

@sweden April 18, 2015, 5:40 p.m.

RT @klacr: @sweden Here's the short but no dolphin into :(

@sweden April 18, 2015, 5:22 p.m.

There are definitely genetic effects and a domestication effect on tonic immobility duration. @JanJoostBouwman

@sweden April 18, 2015, 5:18 p.m.

RT @JohanRonstrom: @sweden I work with bugs! I'm a programmer... #sorry

@sweden April 18, 2015, 5:17 p.m.

You can certainly ask me about political science, but I probably cannot answer. That tweet is from before my week. :) @Diri202

@sweden April 18, 2015, 5:14 p.m.

@klacr @kwmurphy In what sense like dolphins? :)

@sweden April 18, 2015, 5:14 p.m.

Oh, doing what kind of work? :) @MBDfromNC

@sweden April 18, 2015, 5:13 p.m.

RT @MBDfromNC: @sweden I work with mosquitoes!

@sweden April 18, 2015, 2:49 p.m.

@Roger_Larsson One can win any contest by making the rules.

@sweden April 18, 2015, 2:44 p.m.

@Roger_Larsson One can any contest by making the rules.

@sweden April 18, 2015, 2:40 p.m.

I wish I could, but I don't know. Maybe one of the followers has an idea? @adawoody

@sweden April 18, 2015, 2:39 p.m.

RT @adawoody: @sweden hello Martin I'm looking for a way to get a scholarship to complete my postgraduate studies in Sweden. Can you help?

@sweden April 18, 2015, 2:25 p.m.

Speaking of fruit flies. Chickens are really cool, but I think I'd like working with insects too.

@sweden April 18, 2015, 2:16 p.m.

@ternlund Eh, kanske inte behövt tagga dig, för det var inte menat att säga emot dig eller så.

@sweden April 18, 2015, 2 p.m.

Regardless of what type of ethics one believes, I think it's important to know about capabilities of other animals. @ternlund

@sweden April 18, 2015, 1:57 p.m.

RT @PNund: @C0CK5TAR No tending to the young, no social hierarchies, no cooperation, no cleaning, no nesting? Ever met an animal? @sweden

@sweden April 18, 2015, 1:54 p.m.

I feel like it's a Scylla/Charybdis thing; there's also the tendency to disregard animal minds. @SardonicaX

@sweden April 18, 2015, 1:51 p.m.

@Hedgehog91_ I think that makes sense.

@sweden April 18, 2015, 1:46 p.m.

They have really elaborate meeting behavior, though. @princessukenny @Jjst9 @C0CK5TAR

@sweden April 18, 2015, 1:41 p.m.

Or maybe it is universal! This paper has what seems to be a nice discussion. @Hedgehog91_ @C0CK5TAR

@sweden April 18, 2015, 1:37 p.m.

RT @SardonicaX: @sweden Buzzfeed would be unrecognisable without anthropomorphism

@sweden April 18, 2015, 1:27 p.m.

RT @Jjst9: @C0CK5TAR @sweden I hope worker ants don't want to fuck since as far as I'm aware they never get to.

@sweden April 18, 2015, 1:22 p.m.

Sleep doesn't seem to be a universal, though. @C0CK5TAR

@sweden April 18, 2015, 1:19 p.m.

RT @C0CK5TAR: @sweden I'm pretty sure every animal just wants to eat, sleep & fuck

@sweden April 18, 2015, 12:58 p.m.

@sanderwagner Thanks! I'm unlikely to be bored this weekend, tough. :)

@sweden April 18, 2015, 12:53 p.m.

@brokenswenglish But you went and told me, skvallerbytta! :p @chilldivine

@sweden April 18, 2015, 12:41 p.m.

RT @jamiemcc79: @sweden I read that as e-chocolate. I now want some e-chocolate

@sweden April 18, 2015, 12:36 p.m.

Yes, you are more clever than a chicken. Come back when you echolocate better than a bat.

@sweden April 18, 2015, 12:32 p.m.

@sanderwagner I have for a lot of things as well; I don't necessarily think that's such a problem. :)

@sweden April 18, 2015, 12:25 p.m.

Yes, dogs are experts at communicating with humans! @5plits

@sweden April 18, 2015, 12:24 p.m.

RT @5plits: Except for dogs. You can always tell when the dogs are happy or sad.

@sweden April 18, 2015, 12:24 p.m.

As for Herzog, it's true that a lot of other animals are not as clever as humans. But that is no excuse for an attitude of contempt.

@sweden April 18, 2015, 12:21 p.m.

But I think it's within the realm of science to the same extent as knowing what other humans are feeling and thinking.

@sweden April 18, 2015, 12:19 p.m.

It's tricky to know what an animal of a different species is feeling or thinking.

@sweden April 18, 2015, 12:16 p.m.

A lot of behavioral biology is based on test situations with more or less tenuous interpretation.

@sweden April 18, 2015, 11:50 a.m.

It's used as one of several tests of fearfulness in the chicken. One puts the chicken on its back and measures the time it stays immobile.

@sweden April 18, 2015, 11:45 a.m.

The "hypnosis" Herzog talks about is called tonic immobility, by the way. @sanderwagner

@sweden April 18, 2015, 11:43 a.m.

"enormity of their stupidity" Eh,rampant mammal bias! @sanderwagner

@sweden April 18, 2015, 11:09 a.m.

@Mikytricolor If I was into the microbes of the built environment! :)

@sweden April 18, 2015, 10:59 a.m.

RT @ewatterbjork: @sweden Yeah! Like in the "game of chicken", the chicken is the smart person who has the greatest regard for her own and …

@sweden April 18, 2015, 10:57 a.m.

RT @DeathStarDances: @sweden funfact: hen is also similar sounding to a word that sort of kind of means strange in Japanese. it is equally …

@sweden April 18, 2015, 10:57 a.m.

@pipsuxx And within languages. :)

@sweden April 18, 2015, 10:57 a.m.

RT @pipsuxx: @sweden i've never understood this. so many words are spelt the same and mean totally different things across many languages?

@sweden April 18, 2015, 10:56 a.m.

RT @alwilda: @sweden Yes. And this is important to point out, because no other words we use have a different meaning in english ... [fart, …

@sweden April 18, 2015, 10:53 a.m.

I forgot this yesterday! Here is the unicorn (by @Annamaria_n) #unicornfriday

@sweden April 18, 2015, 10:28 a.m.

Come on, if you think you're being compared to a chicken, you should be happy. Chickens are great!

@sweden April 18, 2015, 10:22 a.m.

For reasons that elude me, some folks think it's a very clever joke to point out that it sounds like female chicken in English.

@sweden April 18, 2015, 10:20 a.m.

It's a gender neutral (and sex neutral) pronoun, I'd guess most understand it by now and it's in the vocabulary by the Swedish academy.

@sweden April 18, 2015, 10:11 a.m.

But speaking of strange things people say that involve chickens. I'm sure all @sweden followers have heard about "hen" the pronoun.

@sweden April 18, 2015, 10:09 a.m.

The other being grant applications.

@sweden April 18, 2015, 10:08 a.m.

The figures are of course for a manuscript, as manuscripts are one of the practicing scientist's true obsessions.

@sweden April 18, 2015, 9:59 a.m.

This weekend I need to read a chapter of population genetics, make a couple of figures, and clean my home a little. The rest is all twitter.

@sweden April 18, 2015, 9:57 a.m.

@jpsateles You can quote me on that! :)

@sweden April 18, 2015, 9:52 a.m.

@fremdis Even if it is, the egg still came first. :)

@sweden April 18, 2015, 9:49 a.m.

RT @jpsateles: @sweden oh God, thank you! I finally have expert opinion of my side! I'll screen capture this.

@sweden April 17, 2015, 11:42 p.m.

Of course, the joke is sort of ruined by the fact that the egg came first.

@sweden April 17, 2015, 11:41 p.m.

@5plits Well, I am looking at some egg production traits ... :)

@sweden April 17, 2015, 11:26 p.m.

@matthewlmorley @oldpicsarchive And I'm impressed that an uncredited photo account posted what I think is an accurately described photo.

@sweden April 17, 2015, 11:21 p.m.

I'm just looking for an opportunity for a chicken or egg press release and my life would be complete.

@sweden April 17, 2015, 11:12 p.m.

But who am I to talk? My first press release had a size does matter joke in it.

@sweden April 17, 2015, 10:58 p.m.

But who am I to talk? My first press release had a size does matter how in it.

@sweden April 17, 2015, 10:38 p.m.

You can probably tell that I'm not that thrilled about the title of that news item, but quantitative genetics is fun.

@sweden April 17, 2015, 10:36 p.m.

By the way, this paper came out recently:

@sweden April 17, 2015, 10:09 p.m.

@Jennywchandler @lonelyplanet @Spotify Haha, now I have to add stuff that isn't ABBA. Areas that your plan all along? :p

@sweden April 17, 2015, 10:08 p.m.

@Winterbay_ Oh, anything about exposure causing transgenerational effects?

@sweden April 17, 2015, 9:20 p.m.

RT @psychicteeth: @sweden sorry i have only been cursorily following this week, are you going to genetically engineer unicorns? where do i …

@sweden April 17, 2015, 9:17 p.m.

But maybe for developmental reasons there can't be a horn in that position. Maybe I'd know if I'd read the freaky horn transplant paper.

@sweden April 17, 2015, 9:12 p.m.

(Again, I don't know how my keyboard turned "don't" into "doubt". I'll just have to embrace the awful English.)

@sweden April 17, 2015, 8:59 p.m.

I doubt know any particular reasons unicorns couldn't exist. It's probably an evolutionary accident that they don't. #unicornfriday

@sweden April 17, 2015, 8:46 p.m.

RT @MarcusPetty9: @sweden that's what I thought. I, for one, welcome our aquatic unicorn overlords.

@sweden April 17, 2015, 6:55 p.m.

I should look the development of the respective horns up, but I'm going to say narwhal! @MarcusPetty9

@sweden April 17, 2015, 6:18 p.m.

@RunningBecky Wow I wish I'd been there!

@sweden April 17, 2015, 6:18 p.m.

RT @RunningBecky: @sweden Come on Martin You can do better. I was in GamlaStan all day and all anybody was talking about was genetics! E…

@sweden April 17, 2015, 6:16 p.m.

When I get home I'll show you a unicorn my friend made. #unicornfriday

@sweden April 17, 2015, 6:15 p.m.

I love that it's become a thing to draw unicorns a bit ugly and not so grateful. #unicornfriday

@sweden April 17, 2015, 6:11 p.m.

For now, my mind is stuck on unicorns. Unicorns stand for everything colorful and depraved. #unicornfriday

@sweden April 17, 2015, 5:39 p.m.

Oh, I don't think I've written anything genetics related today. Strange.

@sweden April 17, 2015, 3:06 p.m.

RT @CapnCole: @sweden It's about those Juniper E. Coli isn't it?

@sweden April 17, 2015, 2:58 p.m.

Email subject line of the day: "Fina bakterier" (nice bacteria)

@sweden April 17, 2015, 1:57 p.m.

That sounds fun and absurd! What are they saying? :) @CashGameND

@sweden April 17, 2015, 1:24 p.m.

I actually read a research paper once by some guy who was transplanting horns between different embryos. Freakiest thing ever! @Evil_Fever

@sweden April 17, 2015, 1:22 p.m.

RT @Bryts: @Evil_Fever @sweden I do NOT CARE. Unicorn friday has to be great.

@sweden April 17, 2015, 1:20 p.m.

Of course, but mostly the train between Linköping and Norrköping! @bussborg

@sweden April 17, 2015, 1:19 p.m.

RT @rhyminanstealin: @sweden nice. We have a Walt Whitman quote in one of our Metro stations.

@sweden April 17, 2015, 1:13 p.m.

RT @Evil_Fever: @sweden does unicorn friday mean you focus on trying to create a unicorn?

@sweden April 17, 2015, 12:49 p.m.

Oh Android keyboard, you are the worst! But "pink rock" instead of punk rock was the best typo yet. And fitting, as today is #unicornfriday.

@sweden April 17, 2015, 12:32 p.m.

Now it's back to Linköping, science hat on, and a meeting about a manuscript in the afternoon.

@sweden April 17, 2015, 12:29 p.m.

We tried to connect Walt Whitman, the industrial small town, the strong pink rock and metal in Finspång, and the bookend.

@sweden April 17, 2015, 11:52 a.m.

Apparently in the spirit of M. A. Numminen, who did something similar for a Finnish municipality.

@sweden April 17, 2015, 11:50 a.m.

So, the thing we did was a poetic introduction to the yearly bookend of the municipality of Finspång.

@sweden April 17, 2015, 9:28 a.m.

RT @slidija: So much talkin about chickens on @sweden and I'm from country shaped like one xD #sLOVEnia #chicken #funny…

@sweden April 17, 2015, 7:54 a.m.

@JustJimWillDo Not really, but I don't think the people involved are reading twitter.

@sweden April 17, 2015, 7:21 a.m.

We formed 2005 at the Swedish poetry slam nationals, we've been going for ten years.

@sweden April 17, 2015, 7:15 a.m.

Again, this happened to be an interesting week when I'm not just at my desk all day.

@sweden April 17, 2015, 7:14 a.m.

I actually have vacation today; I'm in Finspång to perform with Dödsstjärnan.

@sweden April 17, 2015, 7:07 a.m.

I actually have vacation today; I'm in Finspång to perform with that secret new project I mentioned yesterday.

@sweden April 17, 2015, 6:57 a.m.

Tagged in a tweet to @NIH_Bear. This is the highlight of my scientific career. @AListScientist

@sweden April 17, 2015, 1:13 a.m.

Tomorrow I'll tell you about some adventures in spoken word poetry.

@sweden April 17, 2015, 1:08 a.m.

I arrived at mum's house around eleven. Both were tired, but for some reason we talked for two hours about the molecular basis of disease.

@sweden April 17, 2015, 1:02 a.m.

Yes, I mentioned buffering, and HSPs are probably the most will known example of that. :) @Serge_at_FARNET

@sweden April 16, 2015, 11:09 p.m.

Throwback Thursday: Sa'ra Charismata, a previous curator, sent this song:

@sweden April 16, 2015, 11 p.m.

It is reasonably easy to simulate. But I'll have a look and see if there's a nice example traced with genetic markers. @anyanyanyanyan5

@sweden April 16, 2015, 10:53 p.m.

But a lot of genetic and evolutionary theory will work the same regardless of the molecular nature of the variants. @5plits @melbacoast

@sweden April 16, 2015, 10:51 p.m.

@5plits @melbacoast Haha, I'm not that hostile to epigenetic evolution.

@sweden April 16, 2015, 10:43 p.m.

Also, when it comes to nongenetic parental effects, we usually don't know the mechanism. @suikerpinda @anyanyanyanyan5

@sweden April 16, 2015, 10:42 p.m.

There had been debate over whether they count as epigenetic or not. @suikerpinda @anyanyanyanyan5

@sweden April 16, 2015, 10:41 p.m.

Yeah, I think there are quite recent studies finding transmission of histone marks. @suikerpinda @anyanyanyanyan5

@sweden April 16, 2015, 10:35 p.m.

@A8Abelaziz Oh, I don't know so much, especially not about medical degrees. I'll look and see if I can get back to you with a link.

@sweden April 16, 2015, 10:34 p.m.

Whether they have major effects in evolution is an open question, I'd say. @melbacoast

@sweden April 16, 2015, 10:33 p.m.

Some stress effects may be transmitted from parent to offspring as nongenetic parental effects. @melbacoast

@sweden April 16, 2015, 10:32 p.m.

Some of them may have effects on traits much later in the development of the individual. @melbacoast

@sweden April 16, 2015, 10:31 p.m.

If we mean epigenetic gene regulatory changes within individuals: yes, probably tons of those in response to stress! @melbacoast

@sweden April 16, 2015, 10:29 p.m.

Yes, maybe! Epigenetics is a bit tricky since it means so several different things to different people. @melbacoast

@sweden April 16, 2015, 10:27 p.m.

Imagine starting a new population from a random sampling. The composition might change a lot, especially with a small sample!@DMRI05

@sweden April 16, 2015, 10:23 p.m.

RT @melbacoast: @DMRI05 @sweden does that touch on epigenetics at all?

@sweden April 16, 2015, 10:22 p.m.

There may also be major changes just because some individuals, carrying some variants, just happen to survive. @DMRI05

@sweden April 16, 2015, 10:19 p.m.

As you say: There can be adaptation if some variants make the carriers deal better with these catastrophic events. @DMRI05

@sweden April 16, 2015, 10:16 p.m.

Evolution means that the gene pool changes over the generations. Some of the evolution is adaptive, some isn't. @DMRI05

@sweden April 16, 2015, 10:15 p.m.

In evolution, it helps to think about the pool of genetic variants within a species. Genomes vary a lot between individuals. @DMRI05

@sweden April 16, 2015, 10:09 p.m.

RT @DMRI05: @sweden @cmbsweden But I think such duress would lead to extinction to most species. Surviving would adapt, so maybe changes in…

@sweden April 16, 2015, 10:08 p.m.

I misunderstood your question! The answer should be a resounding yes, with a few qualifications! :) @DMRI05

@sweden April 16, 2015, 9:33 p.m.

Lots of waving hands are involved.

@sweden April 16, 2015, 9:33 p.m.

Dödsstjärnan ("The Death Star"), the poetry group of which I'm a third, working on a secret new project.

@sweden April 16, 2015, 6:59 p.m.

RT @Chloe_Vdd: @sweden this is so interesting, I'm studying about it for my exam on Monday

@sweden April 16, 2015, 6:58 p.m.

@cmbsweden @DMRI05 Stressful conditions can also reveal genetic variation that is cryptic under normal circumstances, because it's buffered.

@sweden April 16, 2015, 6:57 p.m.

@cmbsweden @DMRI05 Idon't know the example in question, but mutation rate evolution can happen. Don't know how important it is in nature.

@sweden April 16, 2015, 6:54 p.m.

@cmbsweden @DMRI05 Yes, mutations happen all the time, but I thought the question was after some other change in response to stress.

@sweden April 16, 2015, 6:42 p.m.

RT @DMRI05: @sweden Does DNA of a species modify under environmental duress?

@sweden April 16, 2015, 6:22 p.m.

And increased mutation can evolve as a competitive advantage. But directed changes to the genome to cope, not really. @DMRI05

@sweden April 16, 2015, 6:20 p.m.

Depends on what kind of duress. There are definitely environmental conditions that increase mutation rate, like chemical mutagens. @DMRI05

@sweden April 16, 2015, 6:06 p.m.

That gives us a measure of how much there was off each gene.

@sweden April 16, 2015, 6:06 p.m.

We then shine a laser on the slide, and the labeled sample that sticks to the probe shines back.

@sweden April 16, 2015, 6:04 p.m.

The DNA in question was made from the RNA, expressed genes, from tissue samples.

@sweden April 16, 2015, 6:02 p.m.

The pink stuff is DNA labeled with a fluorescent molecule. We stick it on a glass slide that contains DNA probes matching known genes.

@sweden April 16, 2015, 5:54 p.m.

And our method of choice for measuring many genes at once is microarrays. The process involves lots of pink tubes.

@sweden April 16, 2015, 5:47 p.m.

We measure gene expression and map the regions of the genome that are associated with expression of each gene.

@sweden April 16, 2015, 5:23 p.m.

Others are caused by variants that change how much a gene is expressed. That's the kind that eQTL mapping can find.

@sweden April 16, 2015, 5:21 p.m.

Some heritable differences between individuals are caused by changes in gene products, like changes to protein function.

@sweden April 16, 2015, 5:12 p.m.

Gene expression is the first step to a gene being used by the organism.

@sweden April 16, 2015, 5:11 p.m.

eQTL mapping means applying genetic mapping to the expression of genes.

@sweden April 16, 2015, 5:01 p.m.

RT @justme277: @sweden @HailTheKicker lab bacterium would be a good name for a band

@sweden April 16, 2015, 4:57 p.m.

RT @erkynar: @sweden @CapnCole Hear, hear!: Those are words: To live by.

@sweden April 16, 2015, 4:39 p.m.

But here is a selfie in front of the microarray scanner. We've spent many nervous mornings together doing eQTL work.

@sweden April 16, 2015, 4:35 p.m.

If you hadn't caught me during a teaching week, all of my pictures would've been of my desk. I'm in a writing period now.

@sweden April 16, 2015, 4:34 p.m.

@CapnCole There should be an iGEM team working on juniper E. coli ...

@sweden April 16, 2015, 4:32 p.m.

@DMRI05 Sorry, was referring to previous tweet with pictures.

@sweden April 16, 2015, 4:30 p.m.

Yes, and also a the lab bacterium par excellence! @HailTheKicker

@sweden April 16, 2015, 4:28 p.m.

RT @HailTheKicker: @sweden Wasn't "Escherichia coli" some stomach bacteria?

@sweden April 16, 2015, 4:28 p.m.

RT @Omkarmalin: @sweden ur tweets sounds like someone from the big bang theory is live tweeting. #science 😄

@sweden April 16, 2015, 4:27 p.m.

I'd try to keep E. coli or of my cocktails, though. :) @CapnCole

@sweden April 16, 2015, 4:26 p.m.

RT @CapnCole: @sweden Sounds like some kind of awesome new cocktail bar process. I like it.

@sweden April 16, 2015, 4:26 p.m.

It feels a bit like science fiction to me too, but it's very standard molecular biology used for all kinds of things! @KevinDante

@sweden April 16, 2015, 4:07 p.m.

RT @KevinDante: @sweden sound like you're doing work down in Rapture from the game Bioshock 😊

@sweden April 16, 2015, 3:12 p.m.

Pictured: tubes on ice, heating block, nutrient medium for bacteria to live in, flask swirling in incubator.

@sweden April 16, 2015, 3 p.m.

We put plasmid, i.e. circular DNA with the genes we want (here: not much, since it's for demonstrating the principle) into Escherichia coli.

@sweden April 16, 2015, 2:56 p.m.

RT @kniple: @sweden some kind of bacterial plasmid manipulation?

@sweden April 16, 2015, 2:51 p.m.

So this if what molecular cloning looks like

@sweden April 16, 2015, 2:29 p.m.

RT @cmonmila: @sweden precipitation of... something

@sweden April 16, 2015, 2:25 p.m.

RT @HelgeNyman: @sweden Analyze of a urine sample?

@sweden April 16, 2015, 2:25 p.m.

RT @henriknelson: @sweden - Fractional freezing?! :D No idea..

@sweden April 16, 2015, 12:56 p.m.

At lunch: "Is it time to go feed the bacteria yet?"

@sweden April 16, 2015, 12:22 p.m.

Two beautiful pictures from campus: spring weather and the Wright lab bench.

@sweden April 16, 2015, noon

RT @MarmotBiscuits: @MelPolilla @sweden good luck... Maybe we should start a support group!

@sweden April 16, 2015, 10:49 a.m.

@5plits Register and pay the fee, I guess. :) I don't think one actually has to be a researcher in the field to attend.

@sweden April 16, 2015, 10:36 a.m.

RT @MarmotBiscuits: @sweden unless you have a supervisor who keeps you chained to the lab bench :(

@sweden April 16, 2015, 10:31 a.m.

This year I'm going to the ESEB (evolutionary biology) in Lausanne and IBANGS (brain and neural genetics) in Uppsala.

@sweden April 16, 2015, 10:26 a.m.

Scientific conferences (I go to about two a year, one Swedish and one international) are some of the highlights of being a PhD student.

@sweden April 16, 2015, 10:07 a.m.

"We were somewhere around Barstow on the edge of the desert when the debates about an extended synthesis began to take hold."

@sweden April 16, 2015, 10:04 a.m.

I'd like to start a conference called Fear and Loathing in Evolutionary Biology.

@sweden April 16, 2015, 10:03 a.m.

For some reason I get a lot of spam about a conference on Controversies in Bovine Health.

@sweden April 16, 2015, 7:53 a.m.

RT @Eklandisk: @sweden There's a sadness in not being able to share some things that mean so much personally, because of language differenc…

@sweden April 16, 2015, 7:53 a.m.

RT @Eklandisk: @sweden Minimal and brilliant. One more of those gems that I can't wait to share with my beloved, once she has a chance of a…

@sweden April 15, 2015, 11:19 p.m.

@lhbergstrom @petervikstrom @robertsevenius The fact that there is a whole species of black swan sort of ruins it, doesn't it? Cheating. :)

@sweden April 15, 2015, 10:20 p.m.

But now, before I go to bed, some poetry!

@sweden April 15, 2015, 10:19 p.m.

I think I'm going to have to make Saturday paper day, where I find and link all papers I've promised people or hinted about. :)

@sweden April 15, 2015, 8:54 p.m.

RT @beckyscheel: Behold, in all its feathery glory, your new meme icon and work distraction - the Polish chicken

@sweden April 15, 2015, 7:22 p.m.

And broodiness is also a fascinating trait! Pretty much selected away in modern breed improvement. @itchyscratchyF

@sweden April 15, 2015, 7:21 p.m.

RT @itchyscratchyF: @sweden @Feuerz3ug a further observation is that my broody hen's comb that has gone paler and smaller since she started…

@sweden April 15, 2015, 7:19 p.m.

Today was chicken comb day! Unfortunately, I haven't written a comb blog post. But I have this from my halftime:

@sweden April 15, 2015, 6:43 p.m.

And the latest Swedish poultry has arrived. Even ivory tower scientists read it!

@sweden April 15, 2015, 6:39 p.m.

RT @rhyminanstealin: @Wisher_T @sweden I like big combs and I cannot lie

@sweden April 15, 2015, 6:38 p.m.

RT @JanJoostBouwman: @sweden no, adaptive suggest intent, and I believe mutations are random and some are advantageous. Giraffes didn't get…

@sweden April 15, 2015, 6:38 p.m.

@JanJoostBouwman And I agree, variation doesn't mean adaptation. (I too answered no in the next tweet. :) )

@sweden April 15, 2015, 6:36 p.m.

I must stress that I take "adaptation" to mean pretty much what you said: advantageous but with no intent involved. :) @JanJoostBouwman

@sweden April 15, 2015, 6:01 p.m.

It's gray and rainy outside, so I passed by @liu_bibliotek to pick up some books in English translation.

@sweden April 15, 2015, 5:58 p.m.

@5plits I don't know about that. But if that had been done to my family I'd never consent to giving DNA to research.

@sweden April 15, 2015, 5:37 p.m.

RT @Wisher_T: @sweden not that learning more about how genes work is a bad thing or unwanted but I'm used to studies with applications as t…

@sweden April 15, 2015, 5:37 p.m.

RT @Wisher_T: @sweden but it'll a purely academic investigation? As far as I know we don't actually need or want to modify rooster comb siz…

@sweden April 15, 2015, 5:37 p.m.

And there seems to be pleiotropy (oh the jargon: genetic side-effects) on egg production and bone, which is possibly more useful. @Wisher_T

@sweden April 15, 2015, 5:35 p.m.

No, there is little application for comb mass outside basic research. But we do other stuff with these birds too. @Wisher_T

@sweden April 15, 2015, 5:30 p.m.

RT @DanTilert: .@sweden I'm of the firm opinion that all touchscreen keyboards are worthless. Some are less worthless than others, but all …

@sweden April 15, 2015, 5:30 p.m.

@5plits Yes, there is definitely more to domestication than selective breeding. Relaxation of natural and sexual selection, chance ...!

@sweden April 15, 2015, 5:25 p.m.

Admittedly, there is a lot of casual inference in science too.

@sweden April 15, 2015, 5:24 p.m.

Causal inference. Causal! Sometimes I just hate the android keyboard.

@sweden April 15, 2015, 5:23 p.m.

Sat down to tweet and the students at the next table were loudly debating casual inference. Sometimes I just love the university. #liu

@sweden April 15, 2015, 4:52 p.m.

The basis of a domestication trait is also cool, but with comb, I hope we can take these genes to the field eventually! @Wisher_T

@sweden April 15, 2015, 4:50 p.m.

Yes! Sexual selection is mostly abolished, at least in modern breeding. In this cross, we can only study the variants. @Wisher_T

@sweden April 15, 2015, 4:48 p.m.

RT @Wisher_T: @sweden also: if the chickens are bred in farms, it wouldn't really be sexual selection, i think? (Because the mates are chos…

@sweden April 15, 2015, 4:39 p.m.

@Wisher_T @flatbreads @cmbsweden To learn about the genetic basis of a quantitative trait under sexual selection! :)

@sweden April 15, 2015, 4:36 p.m.

@Wisher_T @flatbreads @cmbsweden To learn about the genetic basis of a qusntitative trait under sexual selection! :D

@sweden April 15, 2015, 4:34 p.m.

But we still know very little about the mechanisms. And causes of environmental effects are just as interesting! @itchyscratchyF @Feuerz3ug

@sweden April 15, 2015, 4:33 p.m.

We have (thanks to mapping and gene expression) some idea of the genes behind our associations. @itchyscratchyF @Feuerz3ug

@sweden April 15, 2015, 4:13 p.m.

RT @itchyscratchyF: @Feuerz3ug @sweden would reduction in daylight have an effect too?

@sweden April 15, 2015, 4:13 p.m.

That is also very much a possibility. Could be interesting to look at light regime effects. Maybe someone has. @itchyscratchyF @Feuerz3ug

@sweden April 15, 2015, 3:59 p.m.

RT @Feuerz3ug: @itchyscratchyF @sweden Combs are mostly made of hyaluronan and other matrix stuff, maybe temperature/energy demands will af…

@sweden April 15, 2015, 3:50 p.m.

RT @itchyscratchyF: @sweden @Feuerz3ug indeed, the combs on my chickens get much smaller in the winter

@sweden April 15, 2015, 12:43 p.m.

Teaching time again! Wish me luck. :)

@sweden April 15, 2015, 12:32 p.m.

Yes, though I wouldn't even use "genetic" about a trait, only about variation or contributions. :) @BXGD

@sweden April 15, 2015, 12:16 p.m.

People use this to search for parts of the genome that have been recently selected, looking for regions of reduced variation.

@sweden April 15, 2015, 11:52 a.m.

And in the short term, heritability may even increase with selection.

@sweden April 15, 2015, 11:52 a.m.

There are also cases like frequency dependent selection that can maintain variation, if say rare variants have an advantage.

@sweden April 15, 2015, 11:50 a.m.

No, it's more like the opposite. Selection tends to reduce genetic variation.

@sweden April 15, 2015, 11:39 a.m.

Say that the propensity for some kind of behaviour is heritable in humans. Does that mean that the behaviour is adaptive?

@sweden April 15, 2015, 11:37 a.m.

It seems pretty common to believe that the fact that some trait has a heritable component means that it's an adaptation.

@sweden April 15, 2015, 11:32 a.m.

Another thing I could've brought up among common misconceptions and confusions is the connection between genetics and selection.

@sweden April 15, 2015, 8:52 a.m.

RT @danbjson: @sweden I sometimes translate full circle of the three languages I know sv->de->en in some order.

@sweden April 15, 2015, 8:51 a.m.

Sounds interesting! There is a wonderful example in the @soaysheep where they've worked out that kind of trade-off at one locus! @WuCurdy

@sweden April 15, 2015, 8:46 a.m.

RT @madmaxly: Thanks to @sweden I am now looking up all the different kinds of chicken combs. Their eyes are very creepy!

@sweden April 15, 2015, 8:44 a.m.

But comb size also respond to things like social hierarchy and general health. @Feuerz3ug

@sweden April 15, 2015, 8:43 a.m.

That there is genetic variation in comb size is pretty clear from selection experiments, mapping and the wild/domestic comparison@Feuerz3ug

@sweden April 15, 2015, 8:40 a.m.

But I'll have to check the literature to see if anyone actually used fake combs. That would be great (and fun). @Feuerz3ug

@sweden April 15, 2015, 8:39 a.m.

I know people have messed with plumage to look at the effects of comb and other potential ornaments together. @Feuerz3ug

@sweden April 15, 2015, 8:37 a.m.

I know people has messed with plumage to look at the effects of comb and potential ornaments together. @Feuerz3ug

@sweden April 15, 2015, 8:36 a.m.

RT @Feuerz3ug: @sweden Have you tried increasing comb mass cosmetically? Perhaps it's not genetic? O.o

@sweden April 15, 2015, 8:21 a.m.

So why do Red Junglefowl have smaller combs than domestic on average? Probably because of other costs to having a big comb. @WuCurdy

@sweden April 15, 2015, 8:20 a.m.

Yes! Heritable preference for an ornament should lead to trait exaggeration. @WuCurdy

@sweden April 15, 2015, 8:16 a.m.

@kribbemannen Maybe not in the same way as a chicken, but I do find combs pretty.

@sweden April 15, 2015, 8:11 a.m.

It seems both hens and roosters think that a big comb is an attractive thing in a potential mate.

@sweden April 15, 2015, 7:51 a.m.

The comb is one of those sexual ornaments, i.e. attractive things that animals use to choose mates.

@sweden April 15, 2015, 7:46 a.m.

And that brings us to the obvious question: who cares about chicken comb size? Chickens do!

@sweden April 15, 2015, 7:44 a.m.

I like to think genomics is genetics with contemporary tools. :) @boredwokempire

@sweden April 15, 2015, 7:42 a.m.

But we don't know how it works on a molecular or physiological level (yet ...) @cmbsweden

@sweden April 15, 2015, 7:41 a.m.

We find some evidence that the same regions of the genome are involved in both comb and other domestication traits. @cmbsweden

@sweden April 15, 2015, 7:40 a.m.

I suspect that this is a side-effect of selection for other traits such as egg production and early sexual maturity.@cmbsweden

@sweden April 15, 2015, 7:39 a.m.

RT @cmbsweden: @sweden Could that not be an evolutionary trait because they need it bigger in a domesticated environment?

@sweden April 15, 2015, 7:34 a.m.

Also, we find associated regions of the genome, but the resolution isn't that great. There can be hundreds of genes in these regions.

@sweden April 15, 2015, 7:32 a.m.

All practical mapping studies will miss variants of small effect. When this occurs in human genetics it's called "missing heritability".

@sweden April 15, 2015, 7:30 a.m.

First, we already suspected that comb mass, like most interesting heritable traits, I'd affected by lots of genetic variants.

@sweden April 15, 2015, 7:26 a.m.

Now, a few technicalities about this method, called quantitative trait locus mapping (because it maps quantitative traits to loci, duh).

@sweden April 15, 2015, 7:24 a.m.

Now, a few technicalities about this method, quantitative trait locus mapping (because it mas quantitative traits to loci,duh).

@sweden April 15, 2015, 7:18 a.m.

And we did, and delineated eight regions of the chicken genome where such variants are likely located.

@sweden April 15, 2015, 7:15 a.m.

That means that we can look at comb mass in a wild by domestic intercross to map genetic variants for comb mass.

@sweden April 15, 2015, 7:08 a.m.

For some reason, comb mass has been affected by domestication. Domestic chickens have larger combs, even relative to their bigger bodies.

@sweden April 15, 2015, 7:03 a.m.

But I have worked on the genetics of comb mass in the chicken. (See ).

@sweden April 15, 2015, 7:01 a.m.

Back to genetics! Yesterday, @JanJoostBouwman brought up the chicken comb. I doubt know if that was because you've read my profile or not.

@sweden April 15, 2015, 6:59 a.m.

@Fallen_Woman Yes, I believe switching languages can help with thinking differently.

@sweden April 15, 2015, 6:48 a.m.

@frozenhispanic That is, a measure of how often genetic variants tend to co-occur in a population.

@sweden April 15, 2015, 6:47 a.m.

@frozenhispanic "linkage disequilibrium statistics"

@sweden April 15, 2015, 6:38 a.m.

And good morning! :)

@sweden April 15, 2015, 6:37 a.m.

(Obviously, this doesn't apply to Swedes who are native English speakers, nor to other exceptionally fluent individuals.)

@sweden April 15, 2015, 6:34 a.m.

And, for the same reason, that I should probably try to do more of my thinking in Swedish.

@sweden April 15, 2015, 6:33 a.m.

So I suspect that when Swedish writers think their English poetry sounds better,it's often because they don't see the tired cliches in.

@sweden April 15, 2015, 1:07 a.m.

@RevPLane Haha, would you believe me if I said yes?

@sweden April 15, 2015, 12:41 a.m.

Yes, artificial selection for different combs definitely happens. @JanJoostBouwman

@sweden April 14, 2015, 11:53 p.m.

I'm convinced this is because I'm tone deaf to nuances of English, but I don't know.

@sweden April 14, 2015, 11:39 p.m.

There is a similar thing going on with poetry. How often have you heard a Swede claim that they write better in English?

@sweden April 14, 2015, 11:37 p.m.

The problem is that expressions and phrases that sound good and clever to me in English often sound stupid in Swedish.

@sweden April 14, 2015, 11:33 p.m.

@SweMedic Just! Se "prediktion". :)

@sweden April 14, 2015, 11:30 p.m.

RT @Paddock_S: @sweden Hi. I've always wondered where the word "pek" comes from. Can you explain?

@sweden April 14, 2015, 11:30 p.m.

Good question! Professor Per Jensen on the department uses it and said it was possibly short for "pekoral". I don't know. @Paddock_S

@sweden April 14, 2015, 11:11 p.m.

RT @KoostheFennec: @sweden As a Scientist learning Swedish, this has baffled me xD

@sweden April 14, 2015, 11:10 p.m.

Even though "polymeraskedjereaktionen" looks pretty funny.

@sweden April 14, 2015, 11:09 p.m.

The hard thing about writing about science in Swedish is not the technical terms, because they're mostly the same.

@sweden April 14, 2015, 11:03 p.m.

But I'll note something about speaking English, as someone who goes around sounding like a robot all day at work.

@sweden April 14, 2015, 11 p.m.

And I'm sure you already know the Swedish word for drinking coffee, and that we sound like robots when we speak English.

@sweden April 14, 2015, 10:59 p.m.

As I wrote on, I probably won't provide much by way of insights into Swedishness.

@sweden April 14, 2015, 10:29 p.m.

But one could compare domestic breeds! @JanJoostBouwman

@sweden April 14, 2015, 10:28 p.m.

I don't think it can explain the increase in domestication, since Red Junglefowl have small combs on average. @JanJoostBouwman

@sweden April 14, 2015, 10:27 p.m.

Ah! Comb size as a climate adaptation isn't something we've considered much. @JanJoostBouwman

@sweden April 14, 2015, 10:26 p.m.

RT @JanJoostBouwman: @sweden cool. Just curious if nordic breeds have smaller combs bco the colder weather.

@sweden April 14, 2015, 9:55 p.m.

And of course, the gel picture didn't look very good at all. Failing in public is fun. :p

@sweden April 14, 2015, 9:53 p.m.

RT @individeweal: Ooh this week's @sweden is a geneticist who's teaching Twitter about gel electrophoresis. Fun!

@sweden April 14, 2015, 9:53 p.m.

RT @delilahgracey: I like that @sweden is teaching Twitter about gel electrophoresis #science

@sweden April 14, 2015, 9:52 p.m.

@JanJoostBouwman Unfortunately no, but I know people at SLU study them.

@sweden April 14, 2015, 9:50 p.m.

RT @mr_gerbear: @sweden I learned this in Bio just a couple weeks ago! Mine was the only one that was done right in the end hahaha

@sweden April 14, 2015, 8:58 p.m.

@pipsuxx Hmm, I think something simple like a Southside or a upside down Martini.

@sweden April 14, 2015, 8:53 p.m.

I think the relationships is roughly log-linear.

@sweden April 14, 2015, 8:52 p.m.

Long DNA molecules travel slower through the gel. Therefore, the size of the fragment is reflected by how far the DNA gets in a given time.

@sweden April 14, 2015, 8:50 p.m.

And then we wait. The gel contains a fluorescent molecule that binds DNA so that we can see the DNA under a ultraviolet light.

@sweden April 14, 2015, 8:49 p.m.

We put the electric field on, and DNA, negatively charged, travels through the gel towards the positive pole.

@sweden April 14, 2015, 8:46 p.m.

The third picture shows the little wells we make (with a gel comb) filled with DNA (and blue dye for visibility).

@sweden April 14, 2015, 8:45 p.m.

No, and I haven't eaten chicken in years. @RambergViktor

@sweden April 14, 2015, 8:43 p.m.

You boil the agarose mixed with buffer (water solution with nice pH and dissolved ions) and let is set to a gel.

@sweden April 14, 2015, 8:39 p.m.

@MarkusSugarhill My work is with chickens (and a tiny little bit with dogs).

@sweden April 14, 2015, 8:37 p.m.

I do actually use agar at home too, not so much for solid gels bit in sauces. And for clarification ... But again, I digress. @CookingIssues

@sweden April 14, 2015, 8:33 p.m.

RT @Phatchenny: @sweden I spent a lot of time making and running gels back in college.

@sweden April 14, 2015, 8:30 p.m.

RT @nisa9: @sweden owh, we called agar-agar here to make jelly... colorful jellies lol :D

@sweden April 14, 2015, 8:29 p.m.

We have copied up some DNA sequences (last lab, with PCR) and now we want to compare their lengths. Gel electrophoresis is good for sizing.

@sweden April 14, 2015, 8:25 p.m.

Agarose, a purified version of agar, aka agar-agar, aka vegan gelatin, being weighed out.

@sweden April 14, 2015, 8:21 p.m.

By the way, the gel is running. Time to review. Today's topic: agarose gel electrophoresis.

@sweden April 14, 2015, 8:19 p.m.

I like to say that most of lab work is waiting for thermodynamics ... @Vilsjin

@sweden April 14, 2015, 8:16 p.m.

By the way, working in a lab has given me a lot more passion for cooking. And for cocktails, but that's maybe a topic for another day.

@sweden April 14, 2015, 8:14 p.m.

And, at the same time, that techniques and ideas may fail at any given moment for all kinds of reasons.

@sweden April 14, 2015, 8:12 p.m.

To show that all this technical stuff comes down to doing things that are (for molecular biology) a bit like working in the kitchen.

@sweden April 14, 2015, 8:10 p.m.

I believe the point of teaching lab is, in some sense, to show how science is both easy and hard.

@sweden April 14, 2015, 8:08 p.m.

Practical is maybe overstating it a little. It's not a test, but it is part of the assessment in the course. :)

@sweden April 14, 2015, 7:50 p.m.

RT @kaxkatten: @sweden just read your bio. Chickens, awesome! I did my BSc dissertation on chicken diurnal rhythms. :D

@sweden April 14, 2015, 7:50 p.m.

And when I have done done things with chicken behaviour in connection with domestication. @kaxkatten

@sweden April 14, 2015, 7:49 p.m.

Sounds fun! Where did you work? There are a bunch of ethologists working on chickens and dogs in the department. :) @kaxkatten

@sweden April 14, 2015, 4:56 p.m.

@MJCaan Hello! Yes, I'm having a great time so far!

@sweden April 14, 2015, 4:49 p.m.

Teaching time! Lab practical in molecular genetics. I'll try taking some pictures, and then we can have our own little MOOC later.

@sweden April 14, 2015, 3:19 p.m.

@westernjackdaw There is an ancient seed group in the department who look at archaeological genetics of domestic crops!

@sweden April 14, 2015, 3:17 p.m.

@westernjackdaw My work is mostly on the genetics, but domestication is a great place for archaeology, anthropology and biology to meet!

@sweden April 14, 2015, 1:09 p.m.

@rolfcronberg @Annamaria_n Bought in Lisbon at ESEB2013 at any rate. :)

@sweden April 14, 2015, 1:04 p.m.

Finally, Arthur being a good dog and bringing me coffee.

@sweden April 14, 2015, 1:02 p.m.

Our calendar. Soothing landscapes and always out of sync.

@sweden April 14, 2015, 1:01 p.m.

The programming language bookshelf.

@sweden April 14, 2015, 1 p.m.

Rooster from Lisbon and a crocheted hen by @annamaria_n.

@sweden April 14, 2015, 12:58 p.m.

More chicken decorations. It's always Easter in our office.

@sweden April 14, 2015, 12:56 p.m.

Intercross chicks and Easter egg.

@sweden April 14, 2015, 12:49 p.m.

Let's end this lunch of tweeting with a tour of the office! Here: Darwin quote, my publications and pUC19.

@sweden April 14, 2015, 12:46 p.m.

But again, these things are far from mechanistic models. @partielldiff

@sweden April 14, 2015, 12:46 p.m.

There are some nice cases where that has lead to pathways and mechanisms. @partielldiff

@sweden April 14, 2015, 12:43 p.m.

One thing lots of people do is to use some kind of network or clustering method on gene expression data.@partielldiff

@sweden April 14, 2015, 12:40 p.m.

RT @restreitinho: I love seeing these random tweets by @sweden and not even care about the context.

@sweden April 14, 2015, 12:39 p.m.

RT @Vilsjin: @danbjson You wont't get the original but yes they can be cross bred. @sweden

@sweden April 14, 2015, 12:38 p.m.

@Hedgehog91_ Applies to clonally reproducing animals too, of course. :)

@sweden April 14, 2015, 12:34 p.m.

For animals, reasonably easy. But take clonally reproducing species, what does reproductive isolation mean then? @Hedgehog91_

@sweden April 14, 2015, 12:30 p.m.

But I'll get back to you with some nice example of the evolution of reproductive isolation! @Hedgehog91_

@sweden April 14, 2015, 12:29 p.m.

Speciation is a tricky concept, since species are hard to define. @Hedgehog91_

@sweden April 14, 2015, 12:26 p.m.

Namely, evolution doesn't mean that humans descend from extant chimps, but that we share ancestors with them. @Hedgehog91_

@sweden April 14, 2015, 12:26 p.m.

In terms of primate evolution, make sure to stress what evolution doesn't claim, but creationist often say it does @Hedgehog91_

@sweden April 14, 2015, 12:23 p.m.

For a wonderful example with lots of molecular detail, see @RELenski's long term evolution experiment! @Hedgehog91_

@sweden April 14, 2015, 12:22 p.m.

Adaptation from mutation and selection is observable live, e.g. in drug resistance in viruses and bacteria. @Hedgehog91_

@sweden April 14, 2015, 12:20 p.m.

RT @Hedgehog91_: @sweden denies that we are and are from apes, and god as the designer

@sweden April 14, 2015, 12:20 p.m.

Also, the rewards can feel so distant, and one easily feels stupid and inadequate. @cmonmila

@sweden April 14, 2015, 12:16 p.m.

I suspect we all struggle with motivation sometimes. @cmonmila

@sweden April 14, 2015, 12:15 p.m.

RT @cmonmila: @sweden it's easy for you to have discipline with studying or do scientists struggle like us all?

@sweden April 14, 2015, 12:15 p.m.

@Lufpa @Winterbay_ Me neither! :) It was something about different degrees of human control over reproduction.

@sweden April 14, 2015, 10:19 a.m.

@Lufpa I like the term semidomesticated; reminds me about a nice talk a EBM on classifying domestic fish. I should find it! @Winterbay_

@sweden April 14, 2015, 10:17 a.m.

@Lufpa It is a nice paper. I don't think this means no signal of domestication, though. :) @Winterbay_

@sweden April 14, 2015, 9:50 a.m.

@LgHague @EKantis Ah, yes, but there are also tons of genetic differences between breeds. :)

@sweden April 14, 2015, 9:40 a.m.

@Hedgehog91_ What part of evolution is your friend objecting too: adaptation, formation of new species or something else?

@sweden April 14, 2015, 9:37 a.m.

@LgHague Do you have a particular dog trait in mind? @EKantis

@sweden April 14, 2015, 9:23 a.m.

@Rana_R_june Half past nine in the morning.

@sweden April 14, 2015, 9:13 a.m.

RT @RadiOlendelL: @hulehemma @sweden It exists. It's called Poultrygeist (warning: horror and silly material)

@sweden April 14, 2015, 9:12 a.m.

Even if the trait in question is highly heritable. @EKantis

@sweden April 14, 2015, 9:11 a.m.

Plasticity, in this case, means that individuals with a certain genetic makeup may still show a range of trait values.@EKantis

@sweden April 14, 2015, 9:10 a.m.

Good point, @EKantis, and yes, variable expression is one way to think about it.

@sweden April 14, 2015, 9:04 a.m.

And in the other end, intense separate selection on layer and meat breeds started with the last 100 years. @danbjson

@sweden April 14, 2015, 9:02 a.m.

And different stages: a common hypothesis (that I doubt) is that chickens were first domesticated for sport or ceremony. @danbjson

@sweden April 14, 2015, 9:01 a.m.

Yes, an evolutionary process with components like adaptation to humans, artificial selection, relaxed predation, some chance etc. @danbjson

@sweden April 14, 2015, 8:56 a.m.

@Hedgehog91_ My impression is that creationists often don't believe evolution clashes with other beliefs. It's not just about the evidence.

@sweden April 14, 2015, 8:55 a.m.

@Hedgehog91_ Oh, that is a tricky one. Not the evidence, but convincing someone who is a creationist.

@sweden April 14, 2015, 8:52 a.m.

@SheepOfJesus Hehe, well, the domestic side of the cross is a layer breed. KFC won't serve that ...

@sweden April 14, 2015, 8:50 a.m.

@hulehemma Chickens can be pretty ferocious :)

@sweden April 14, 2015, 8:49 a.m.

RT @hulehemma: @sweden Sounds like a vegan horror movie. "Feral chickens. - When dinner attacks"

@sweden April 14, 2015, 8:44 a.m.

RT @danbjson: @sweden I really like the way you consider domestication as an evolutionary process.

@sweden April 14, 2015, 8:44 a.m.

Often all that is known about the gene is based on sequence alignment. @partielldiff

@sweden April 14, 2015, 8:42 a.m.

And usually, I wouldn't even know what reactions to model! @partielldiff

@sweden April 14, 2015, 8:40 a.m.

But I believe tameness, i.e. reduced fear towards humans, is part of cat domestication too. @Winterbay_

@sweden April 14, 2015, 8:38 a.m.

The relation between cats and humans, cattle and humans, and chickens and humans are pretty different. @Winterbay_

@sweden April 14, 2015, 8:37 a.m.

I don't know much about cat domestication. But different domestic animals must have faced different selection pressures. @Winterbay_

@sweden April 14, 2015, 8:32 a.m.

RT @Winterbay_: @sweden What do you think about the theory that cats were not so much domesticated as merely accepted into tribes as useful?

@sweden April 14, 2015, 12:32 a.m.

@lhbergstrom I'd like to work on an odd hybrid. :)

@sweden April 14, 2015, 12:22 a.m.

@adamlagerqvist Haha, we should live tweet the lab. :)

@sweden April 13, 2015, 8:25 p.m.

Indeed, the comb is the queen of sexual ornaments. :) @rhyminanstealin

@sweden April 13, 2015, 8:24 p.m.

RT @rhyminanstealin: @sweden comb mass is the best trait of all time

@sweden April 13, 2015, 8:24 p.m.

This is a post I wrote about our first, but hopefully not last, paper on them! @wholegrainlofat

@sweden April 13, 2015, 7:31 p.m.

We're also interested in feralisation, which is like reverse domestication in some sense. Our latest paper was on the Kauai feral chickens.

@sweden April 13, 2015, 7:28 p.m.

I've been looking into bone traits, comb mass (an ornamental trait in chickens), fearful behaviour and gene expression.

@sweden April 13, 2015, 7:22 p.m.

If you look closely at my avatar you see s few of the intercross chicks. (Photo by my supervisor Dom Wright.)

@sweden April 13, 2015, 7:21 p.m.

Therefore, we (the people in the lab where I work and quite a few in the neighboring labs as well) work on wild x domestic chicken crosses.

@sweden April 13, 2015, 7:12 p.m.

@afshimono If a tool I needed required writing python, I'd use it for sure.

@sweden April 13, 2015, 7:11 p.m.

@afshimono I doubt that's the case, but sure, I occasionally write python and have nothing against it. :)

@sweden April 13, 2015, 7:09 p.m.

And wild animals are still there, and can interbreed with the domestics. That sets the stage for genetic mapping of domestication traits.

@sweden April 13, 2015, 7:07 p.m.

Domestication is one evolutionary process that causes lots of interesting differences in animals (and plants).

@sweden April 13, 2015, 7:04 p.m.

So what is it that I do? I'm interested in how genetic variants affect traits.

@sweden April 13, 2015, 6:51 p.m.

I haven't actually tried any of the notebook style tools. I should! :) @Aldebjer

@sweden April 13, 2015, 6:46 p.m.

@Lundatic Ah! Looks interesting with the local variation in developmental time! Didn't know about that one.

@sweden April 13, 2015, 6:40 p.m.

@d_a_petersson Geneway? Am I missing a great pun? :o

@sweden April 13, 2015, 6:33 p.m.

@LunaCentifanti Sadly, I'm not surprised. Can't even promise I don't fall into that trap. Hard pattern of thought to shed,I think. @Aldebjer

@sweden April 13, 2015, 6:26 p.m.

Unfortunately, I know very little. But I believe the Avian Pylogenomics Project sequenced a penguin genome. @ViolinNDance

@sweden April 13, 2015, 6:21 p.m.

@zentree @mrtnj "Mr Sweden" ... I could live with that nickname :)

@sweden April 13, 2015, 6:17 p.m.

Both people who love and hate the idea of genetic influences on traits seem to make that mistake. @Aldebjer

@sweden April 13, 2015, 6:16 p.m.

Another is the, still infuriatingly common, idea that heritable traits are always or by default "hard-wired" and nonplastic. @Aldebjer

@sweden April 13, 2015, 6:14 p.m.

Keeping that in mind helps with many issues and heated arguments. @Aldebjer

@sweden April 13, 2015, 6:13 p.m.

"Gene" means both molecular gene, i.e. sequence with a function, and genetic variant that causes differences between individuals. @Aldebjer

@sweden April 13, 2015, 6:11 p.m.

A major confusion is that the word "gene" has at least two meanings. Like two perspectives on genetics. @Aldebjer

@sweden April 13, 2015, 6:10 p.m.

But, also, I don't think it's just misconceptions among the public, but sometimes conflicting views and concepts among experts. @Aldebjer

@sweden April 13, 2015, 6:08 p.m.

There are a couple that I feel are very common and confusing. @Aldebjer

@sweden April 13, 2015, 6:07 p.m.

RT @Aldebjer: @sweden Interesting! What do you think is the most common misconception about genetics, among the public? @liu_university

@sweden April 13, 2015, 6:04 p.m.

That said, even today, we probably should think more about how to design good experiments to follow up model predictions. @partielldiff

@sweden April 13, 2015, 6:02 p.m.

But in a distant bright future, I hope, quantitative genetics and systems biology will converge. :) @partielldiff

@sweden April 13, 2015, 6 p.m.

I mostly use statistical models to connect traits to genes and genetic markers. @partielldiff

@sweden April 13, 2015, 5:55 p.m.

Oh, I'd love to know enough about my systems to do mechanistic modelling! We're just nowhere nere there. @partielldiff

@sweden April 13, 2015, 5:52 p.m.

@Lundatic @Rana_R_june Oh, I don't know about settler theory! Could you link or explain? :)

@sweden April 13, 2015, 5:50 p.m.

But I find it kind of cool that ordinary traits like hair colour, height etc illustrate the complexities of inheritance @SamuelAgboola

@sweden April 13, 2015, 5:48 p.m.

Mind you, I don't know that much about the genetics of human colour (but a colleague works on chicken feather colour. :) ) @SamuelAgboola

@sweden April 13, 2015, 5:41 p.m.

What initially brought me there was Bioconductor and R/qtl. :) @melbacoast @afshimono

@sweden April 13, 2015, 5:39 p.m.

Lots of different tools and packages for different tasks, of course, but R is my preferred working language. @melbacoast @afshimono

@sweden April 13, 2015, 5:32 p.m.

@DanieleTatti If you mean my excessive hairyness I doubt that is an adaptation to the Nordic climate. :)

@sweden April 13, 2015, 5:31 p.m.

@TobiasHop Last shave was maybe eleven years ago.

@sweden April 13, 2015, 5:29 p.m.

It's kind of both: submitting to journal and will use it in thesis. @octavekitten

@sweden April 13, 2015, 5:27 p.m.

Card-carrying in the sense that I prefer #Rstats for most tasks and am happy to tell others to use it. :) @DerFredo

@sweden April 13, 2015, 5:25 p.m.

Card-carrying in the sense that I prefer #Rstats for most tasks and are happy to tell others to use it. :) @DerFredo

@sweden April 13, 2015, 5:22 p.m.

I don't see myself as a bioinformatician, but I guess part of what I do is bioinformatics. @afshimono

@sweden April 13, 2015, 5:21 p.m.

Since I use sequencing, microarrays and reasonably large pedigrees, I use computers and programming a lot. @afshimono

@sweden April 13, 2015, 5:19 p.m.

Genetics always meant statistics and data analysis, but even more so with modern tools. @afshimono

@sweden April 13, 2015, 3:35 p.m.

@solidsociaty I just got it as a present. Too cute. :)

@sweden April 13, 2015, 3:08 p.m.

I like it a lot. :) Five years, so this is my last. @suikerpinda

@sweden April 13, 2015, 3:07 p.m.

This is my last year, and I believe that is pretty typical. Five years, 20% of which is teaching. @MusicAndBrains

@sweden April 13, 2015, 1:11 p.m.

Wow, lots of questions coming in! I'll answer more of them in the evening. :)

@sweden April 13, 2015, 1:02 p.m.

Yes. Not programming as in software development, but my data analysis requires programming. @AxelRantila

@sweden April 13, 2015, 1:01 p.m.

RT @AxelRantila: @sweden do you do much programming?

@sweden April 13, 2015, 12:59 p.m.

RT @DerFredo: @sweden Looks like you're doing R ;-)

@sweden April 13, 2015, 12:55 p.m.

Spring is here. Student organizations come out. #liu

@sweden April 13, 2015, 12:47 p.m.

For anyone who wonders what my work looks like today, I took a picture.

@sweden April 13, 2015, 12:45 p.m.

For what it's worth, I like it a lot and would choose it again. @StockholmTales

@sweden April 13, 2015, 12:41 p.m.

Yes, ideally I'd like to do both research and teaching. @samantha_chang @liu_university

@sweden April 13, 2015, 12:31 p.m.

I'm interested in how genes affect traits. For example, how does local adaptation work? @Rana_R_june

@sweden April 13, 2015, 12:28 p.m.

Oh, good question, @Rana_R_june. I really like how many open questions there are.

@sweden April 13, 2015, 12:11 p.m.

RT @Rana_R_june: @sweden what do u like the most about what u learn in genetics ?

@sweden April 13, 2015, 12:08 p.m.

@lhbergstrom Odd bird hybrids do occur, of though, and I don't know for sure. :)

@sweden April 13, 2015, 12:06 p.m.

The black swan is a different species from another part of the world; probably not. @lhbergstrom

@sweden April 13, 2015, 11:29 a.m.

@Lufpa It's a rotating account with a different Swede each week!

@sweden April 13, 2015, 10:43 a.m.

I'll be back at lunch. For now, coffee selfie!

@sweden April 13, 2015, 10:32 a.m.

@Fondacey @GodiePeCo Well, I see where he is coming from. The "science as a devoted monastery-like life" meme is inaccurate and annoying. :)

@sweden April 13, 2015, 10:29 a.m.

Well, I have a life. I didn't say I worked all the time or had no friends, right? :) @GodiePeCo

@sweden April 13, 2015, 10:24 a.m.

But I promise to talk about some other stuff I like, including probably poetry. @GodiePeCo

@sweden April 13, 2015, 10:23 a.m.

Good point, @GodiePeCo, bit I'm in my last year of my PhD, and that statement is pretty much true for me right now.

@sweden April 13, 2015, 10:20 a.m.

RT @GodiePeCo: @sweden why do you imply that being in science means we don't have other interests?

@sweden April 13, 2015, 10:16 a.m.

That means I pretty much only have one interest right now, which is science. Consequently, that's what I'll tweet about, more or less.

@sweden April 13, 2015, 10:14 a.m.

I'm a PhD student in genetics at @liu_university, currently on my fifth year.

@sweden April 13, 2015, 10:11 a.m.

@TobiasHop No, sorry, I'm way too white, atheist and sinful to be Jesus.

@sweden April 13, 2015, 10:09 a.m.

So: Hi, I'm Martin Johnsson, usually @mrtnj, and I'll be your @sweden for this week.

@sweden April 13, 2015, 10:07 a.m.

Marvellous! Amina will be a tough act to follow, but I'll do my best.